1. Pandanaceae R.Br.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FWTA]

Pandanaceae, F.N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Habit
Trees or shrubs, trunk and branches often with aerial roots
Leaves
Leaves in 4 rows or spirally arranged and crowded towards the top of the shoots, linear, sheathing at the base, keeled, mostly spinulose on the margins and keel
Flowers
Flowers dioecious, paniculate or densely crowded into spadices, the latter axillary and terminal, fasciculate or paniculate, enclosed at first by spathaceous sometimes coloured or leafy bracts Female flower: staminodes absent or small and hypogynous or adnate to the base of the ovary Male flower: stamens numerous; filaments free or connate; anthers erect, basifixed, 2-celled, the cells sometimes again once divided
Perianth
Perianth rudimentary or absent
Male
Male flower: stamens numerous; filaments free or connate; anthers erect, basifixed, 2-celled, the cells sometimes again once divided
Female
Female flower: staminodes absent or small and hypogynous or adnate to the base of the ovary
Gynoecium
Ovules solitary to many, basal or parietal Ovary superior, 1-celled, free or confluent with adjacent ovaries into bundles with separate or united stigmas; style very short or absent
Fruits
Syncarps oblong to globose; mature carpels woody, drupaceous or baccate, pulpy inside
Seeds
Seeds minute, with fleshy endosperm and minute embryo
[FTEA]

Pandanaceae, H.J. Beentje. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1993

Habit
Trees or shrubs, less often lianas or epiphytic shrubs, often with stilt-roots or aerial roots from the lower trunk, and sometimes from the branches; branches woody, with annular leaf-scars
Leaves
Leaves spirally arranged in 3 or 2 rows (the latter appearing as 4 rows), crowded towards the apices of the branches, simple, lanceolate or linear, sheathing at the base, coriaceous, keeled and often 3-plicate, usually with small prickles on the midrib beneath, on the margins, and sometimes on the distal ventral pleats as well
Flowers
Flowers unisexual, crowded in branched or unbranched spadices (panicles in Sararanga); inflorescences terminal or terminating lateral shoots, enclosed at first by spathaceous and often coloured bracts Female flowers with 1-several ovaries, lacking perianth parts, sometimes with staminodia; ovary 1-locular, free or confluent with adjacent ovaries into bundles, but always with separate stigmas corresponding with the number of locules; style absent or vestigial; stigma appressed or erect, lined with glandular hairs hardening at maturity, various in form but often rounded-cordate, V- or U-shaped, horseshoe-shaped or kidney-shaped, with a basal groove corresponding in position to the location of the placenta, i.e. directly above it; staminodes, if present, hypogynous and ± adnate to the ovary (or compound ovary) wall; ovules anatropous, solitary (in >i>Pandanus) or many (in >i>Freycinetia), parietal Male flowers: perianth absent or vestigial; stamens few-numerous, in corymbs or umbels; filaments free or connate; anthers erect, basifixed, 2-thecous, opening lengthwise by slits; ovary vestigial or absent
Male
Male flowers: perianth absent or vestigial; stamens few-numerous, in corymbs or umbels; filaments free or connate; anthers erect, basifixed, 2-thecous, opening lengthwise by slits; ovary vestigial or absent
Female
Female flowers with 1-several ovaries, lacking perianth parts, sometimes with staminodia; ovary 1-locular, free or confluent with adjacent ovaries into bundles, but always with separate stigmas corresponding with the number of locules; style absent or vestigial; stigma appressed or erect, lined with glandular hairs hardening at maturity, various in form but often rounded-cordate, V- or U-shaped, horseshoe-shaped or kidney-shaped, with a basal groove corresponding in position to the location of the placenta, i.e. directly above it; staminodes, if present, hypogynous and ± adnate to the ovary (or compound ovary) wall; ovules anatropous, solitary (in >i>Pandanus) or many (in >i>Freycinetia), parietal
Infructescences
Cephalia (fruiting heads) globose to oblong, solitary or in a spike, composed of ripened fruits—either drupes or clusters of partly fused drupes (phalanges) in >i>Pandanus, or berries (in >i>Freycinetia); pericarp thin, coriaceous to fleshy or firm; mesocarp fibrous, with spongy pith, fleshy (in >i>Pandanus) or gelatinous-fleshy (in >i>Freycinetia); endocarp fibrous and bony (in >i>Pandanus) to thin and lignified (>i>Sararanga) to membranous (>i>Freycinetia), enclosing the locule(s) in an integral structure; all or only some — but at least the interior ones—locules fertile
Seeds
Seeds free (>i>Freycinetia, Sararanga) or inseparable from the endocarp (>i>Pandanus); testa membranous and delicate; endosperm white, homogeneous; embryo sub-basal

Images

Pandanaceae R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Prodr. [A. P. de Candolle] 340. 1810 [27 Mar 1810] (1810)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0