1. Family: Symplocaceae Desf.
    1. Genus: Symplocos Jacq.
      1. Symplocos kleinii Aranha

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Brazil (Paraná).

    [KBu]

    Aranha Filho, J.L.M., Fritsch, P.W., Almeda, F. et al. 2013. Kew Bulletin 68: 625. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9479-4

    Type
    Type: Brazil, Paraná, MunicípioGuaratuba, Rio Itararé, 14 April 1983, fl., Kummrow 2298 (holotype UPCB!; isotypes CAS!, MBM!, HUCS!, SPSF!).
    Habit
    Shrub to tree (1.5 –) 2.5 – 6 m tall
    Branches
    Branchlets greenish or yellowish green, winged, terete in cross section or occasionally sinuate, sparsely to moderately white- or ferrugineous-pustulose. Leaves distributed evenly along branchlet, patent or slightly ascending; petiole (2 –) 3 – 6 (– 6.5) mm long, abaxially rounded, adaxially flat or concave, sparsely to densely white- or ferrugineous-pustulose, glabrescent; leaf blade spathulate or obovate, less often elliptic or broadly elliptic, 3 – 9.8 × 1 – 3 cm, membranaceous, abaxially glabrous to moderately white or ferrugineous-pustulose, pilose, and/or strigose, glabrescent, adaxially with a flat to slightly elevated midvein, glabrous, base attenuate, cuneate, or rarely obtuse, margin inconspicuous to conspicuously serrulate on the distal half or on the distal ¾, teeth 6 to 20, marginal glands present only at the tooth apex, commonly persistent, scars visible when glands caducous, apex acuminate, acuminate-mucronulate or acute, acumen (when present) 3 – 15 mm long, apical gland caducous or less often persistent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence axillary, peduncle visible, not obscured by bracts, glabrous or rarely golden-pilose especially near the pedicels; bracts numerous, strongly imbricate, clasping peduncle base, 0.6 – 2 × 0.4 – 1.7 mm, coriaceous to membranaceous, caducous but usually several retained at peduncle base, glabrous to moderately golden-pilose externally, margin eciliolate to densely ciliolate, apical gland present at least in some proximal bracts, proximal bracts rotund, broadly ovate or nearly orbicular, apex obtuse or rounded, distal bracts ovate or elliptic, apex acute, obtuse or emarginate Male inflorescence racemose, botryoid, panicoid, thyrsoid, or one-flowered, 1- to 13-flowered, (4.7 –) 8 – 25 mm long; peduncle (2 –) 5 – 22.5 mm long, most or all longer than the pedicels
    Pedicel
    Pedicel 0.7 – 12 mm long; bracteoles deltoid, ovate, or elliptic, flat or keeled, 0.5 – 2 × 0.2 – 1.6 mm, membranaceous, caducous or rarely persistent, glabrous to sparsely golden-pilose externally, margin ciliolate or not, eglandular, apex obtuse or acute
    Calyx
    Calyx lobes 5, erect or less often slightly ascending, deltoid, ovate or broadly ovate, 0.3 – 0.6 × 0.2 – 0.4 mm, glabrous to sparsely golden-pilose, margin eciliolate or sparsely ciliolate, eglandular, apex acute, subacute or obtuse
    Corolla
    Corolla whitish, cream, greenish cream, or greenish white, tube 0.4 – 0.5 mm long, lobes 3 or 4, reflexed, elliptic, ovate or less often obovate, (1 –) 1.3 – 2.5 × (0.5 –) 1 – 2 mm, glabrous, margin eciliolate or rarely ciliolate
    Stamens
    Stamens and staminodes: filaments distinct or inconspicuously connate, whitish, ± filiform, glabrous; anthers basifixed, yellowish, globose to ellipsoid
    Disc
    Disc present at ovary apex, 3-lobed or nearly annular in transverse view, smooth to slightly knobby, glabrous or pilose
    Flowers
    Pistillate flower: hypanthium 0.5 – 1 mm long; staminodes 4 to 7, 0.5 – 2 mm long, filaments distinct or connate up to 0.4 mm, anthers 0.3 – 0.4 × 0.3 – 0.4 mm, producing malformed and nonviable pollen; ovary with 1 to 4 ovules per locule, 1 to 2 developed and 0 to 2 reduced in size, developed ovules pendulous, 0.6 – 0.8 mm long, style 0.7 – 1.5 mm long, stigma nearly capitate; disc short-cylindrical in longitudinal view, apex truncate, 0.35 – 0.7 mm diam- Drupe ellipsoid or ovoid, 5 – 7 (– 7.5) × 3 – 4 mm, glabrous, apex 0.6 – 1 mm diam.; fruiting calyx lobes erect to tightly appressed to disc, exceeding the disc in length or not, 0.2 – 0.3 × 0.2 – 0.6 mm; disc visible or not, if visible then conical or rounded, glabrous; endocarp 0.05 – 0.15 mm thick Staminate flower: hypanthium 0.5 – 1 mm long; stamens (5 to) 7 to 14, 0.5 – 3 mm long, filaments distinct or connate up to 0.5 mm, anthers 0.35 – 0.45 × 0.3 – 0.4 mm; ovary aseptate or with 1 to 3 incomplete septa, ovules absent or notably reduced and non-fertile, style and stigma absent; disc flattened or short cylindrical in longitudinal view, then apex truncate, 0.4 – 0.8 diam- Female inflorescence racemose, botryoid, or one-flowered, 1- to 7-flowered, (3.5 –) 5 – 15 (– 17) mm long; peduncle (0.5 –) 1 – 5 (– 6) mm long, most or all shorter than the pedicels Flower 2 – 3.4 mm long; hypanthium funnelform, glabrous to moderately golden-pilose
    Seeds
    Seed sub-orbicular in cross section, 0.35 – 0.5 mm long
    Distribution
    This species is apparently restricted to the state of Paraná in southern Brazil. Most of the collections were made in the Curitiba Metropolitan Region (eastern part of the state) in the Atlantic Rain Forest biome. It is possible that the species grows in northeastern Santa Catarina and southeastern Sao Paulo because it is also found near the border of both states.
    Ecology
    Symplocos kleinii typically grows in dense ombrophilous montane forest and Araucaria forest, and more rarely in secondary formations, at 800 – 1100 m elevation.
    Conservation
    Our field observations suggest that, although Symplocos kleinii is relatively widespread along the Atlantic Rain Forest of Paraná, it is uncommon. Most of the collections are from Curitiba Metropolitan Region, the most populated and urbanised area of Paraná. There are a few well preserved forest fragments in this area, especially in the area of the Serra do Mar. However, there are no data regarding abundance or estimates of population numbers or sizes. Therefore, we categorise S. kleinii as Data Deficient (DD).
    Phenology
    Flowering specimens of Symplocos kleinii were collected from April through June and fruiting specimens from September through December, and rarely in February and August.
    Note

    Pustulose branchlets are very rare in Symplocos sect. Hopea and the only species other than Symplocos kleinii that has this type of indument is S. pustulosa Aranha (Aranha Filho & Martins 2011). Both species can grow in the same areas and forest types in Paraná. However, S. pustulosa does not possess winged branchlets. Moreover, the midvein on the adaxial surface is sulcate (vs flat to slightly elevated) and most or all peduncles of female individuals are longer than the pedicels (vs most or all shorter than the pedicels).

    Branchlets winged, sparsely to moderately pustulose. Leaf blade sparsely to densely pustulose, pilose and/or strigose abaxially, glabrescent, midvein adaxially flat to slightly elevated. Most or all peduncles of female individuals shorter than pedicels. Corolla lobes 3 or 4, reflexed. Drupe 5 – 7 (– 7.5) mm long.

    Symplocos kleinii has been recognised by botanists in Brazil since the time of Bidá's (1995) treatment, especially due to its sparsely to moderately pustulose branchlets. In addition, S. kleinii is characterised by the combination of winged branchlets, leaf blade midvein adaxially flat to slightly elevated, and most or all peduncles of female individuals shorter than the pedicels.

    Bidá (1995), in his unpublished PhD dissertation, proposed Symplocos kleinii as new to science. Since then, this name, although not validly published, has been widely employed by botanists to identify specimens of S. kleinii in various Brazilian herbaria, especially those in Paraná. To avoid confusion among scientists dealing with this species, we have retained Bidá’s epithet. Bidá (1995) honoured the botanist and ecologist Dr Roberto Miguel Klein (1923 – 1992), one of the foremost experts on the flora of Santa Catarina. Klein and Raulino Reitz initiated the Flora IlustradaCatarinense, the most comprehensive state flora ever undertaken in Brazil.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Brazil South

    Symplocos kleinii Aranha appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kew Bull. 68: 628 (2013)

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0