1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Jaffrea H.C.Hopkins & Pillon

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is New Caledonia.


    Hopkins, H.C.F., Pillon, Y., Stacy, E.A. et al. 2015. Jaffrea, a new genus of Rhamnaceae endemic to New Caledonia, with notes on Alphitonia and Emmenosperma. Kew Bulletin 70: 42. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-015-9593-6

    Type: Jaffrea xerocarpa (Baill.) H. C. Hopkins & Pillon = Alphitonia xerocarpa Baill.
    Trees or shrubs, without spines
    Indumentum when present, of simple, straight to curved hairs
    Stipules small, triangular, free, with scabrid margins, fugaceous
    Leaves simple, alternate, entire; secondary venation pinnate, higher order venation reticulate or obscure
    Inflorescence thyrsoid, subsiduary units pseudo-umbellate, the flowers tending to be in fascicles
    Flowers bisexual, with a conical hypanthium, the sepals, petals and stamens borne around its rim; sepals 5, triangular, each with a keel along the midline on the upper surface; petals 5, cucullate, each enclosing an anther, incurved to ± erect at anthesis, shorter than sepals; stamens 5; filaments subequal to petals, ± erect at anthesis; disc a series of lumps or a ± continuous ring attached to the wall of the hypanthium but not entirely filling its mouth; ovary semi-inferior at anthesis, locules 3 (4), each containing a single erect ovule; style conical, thick, stigma 3 (4)-lobed
    Fruits woody, ellipsoid and beaked, with an annular scar close to the base, apparently tardily dehiscent; the part proximal to the scar somewhat thickened, resembling a cupule; exocarp dark at maturity; mesocarp thin or absent; endocarpids crustaceous, dehiscing initially from the apex then falling to reveal 3 erect seeds that sometimes persist on the base of the fruit
    Seeds ellipsoid, ± dorso-ventrally flattened, exarillate; testa hard, shiny, orange, sometimes minutely pitted; presence of endosperm unknown.
    A genus of two species, both endemic to New Caledonia.

    Named in honour of Tanguy Jaffré, who has worked extensively on the flora New Caledonia and especially on its ecology, and who was formerly head of the herbarium (NOU) at the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), previously the Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), in Nouméa. His collections include: Jaffré 848, 1333 and 3054 (Jaffrea xerocarpa) and Jaffré 1025 (J. erubescens).

    Differs from Emmenosperma s.s. by its flowers, in which the hypanthium is narrowly conical (vs cup-shaped in Emmenosperma s.s.) and the disc is thick, comprising a series of lumps or a ± continuous ring around the gynoecium (vs disc thin, lining the hypanthium in Emmenosperma s.s.) and by its fruits, which are ellipsoid and markedly beaked with a thickened, cone-shaped cupule below the ring-scar (vs fruits globose or 3-lobed with a small apiculum, bulging below the ring-scar in Emmenosperma s.s.).


    Native to:

    New Caledonia

    Jaffrea H.C.Hopkins & Pillon appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kew Bull. 70(4)-42: 15 (2015)


    Kew Bulletin
    • JSTOR Global Plants. (Published on the internet. http://plants.jstor.org . Accessed 11 Feb. 2014).
    • Australia’s Virtual Herbarium (AVH). (Published on the internet. http://avh.chah.org.au. Accessed September – October 2013).
    • Bean, A. R. (2013). Emmenosperma pancherianum Baill. (Rhamnaceae) newly recorded for Australia. Austrobaileya 9: 150 – 152.Google Scholar
    • Sonnerat. (Published on the internet. http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form . Accessed Oct. 2013 – June 2014).
    • Thiele, K. R., Udovicic, F., Walsh, N. G. & Kellermann, J. (in prep., version Sept. 2013). Rhamnaceae. Flora of Australia. ABRS/CSIRO Australia, Melbourne.Google Scholar
    • Morat, P., Jaffré, T., Tronchet, F., Munzinger, J., Pillon, Y., Veillon, J.-M. & Chalopin, M. (2012). The taxonomic reference base Florical and characteristics of the native vascular flora of New Caledonia. Adansonia, sér. 3, 34: 179 – 221.Google Scholar
    • Bean, A. R. (2010). A revision of Alphitonia (Rhamnaceae) for Australia. Muelleria 28: 3 – 15.Google Scholar
    • Zongo, C. (2010). Données biologiques et physiologiques sur les semences de quelques espèces de milieux ultramafiques néo-calédoniens. Doctoral thesis, Université de la Nouvelle-Calédonie, Nouméa.Google Scholar
    • Hopkins, H. C. F. & Bradford, J. C. (2009). Nomenclature and typification of names in the endemic genus Pancheria (Cunoniaceae) from New Caledonia. Adansonia, sér. 3, 31: 103 – 135.Google Scholar
    • Kellermann, J. & Thiele, K. R. (2008). Lectotypifications and nomenclatural notes on Rhamnaceae from northern Australia. J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 22: 33 – 35.Google Scholar
    • Posada, D. (2008). jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging. Molec. Biol. Evol. 25: 1253 – 1256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
    • Chen, Y. & Schirarend, C. (2007). Rhamnaceae. In: Wu Z., P. H. Raven & Hong D. (eds), Flora of China Vol. 12: 115 – 168. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St Louis.Google Scholar
    • Kellermann, J. & Udovicic, F. (2007). Large indels obscure phylogeny in analysis of chloroplast DNA (trnL – F) sequence data: Pomaderreae (Rhamnaceae) revisited. Telopea 12: 1 – 22.Google Scholar
    • Pillon, Y., Fay, M. F., Hedrén, M., Bateman, R. M., Devey, D. S., Shipunov, A. B., van der Bank, M. & Chase, M. W. (2007). Evolution and temporal diversification of western European polyploid species complexes in Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae). Taxon 56: 1185 – 1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    • Thomson, L. A. J. & Thaman, R. R. (2006, rev. 2008). Alphitonia zizyphoides (toi), ver. 2.1. In: C. R. Elevitch (ed.), Species profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Hōlualoa, Hawai'i. (Published on the internet. http://www.traditionaltree.org . Accessed Aug. 2013).
    • Medan, D. & Schirarend, C. (2004). Rhamnaceae. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Vol. 6: 320 – 338. Springer, Berlin & Heidelberg.Google Scholar
    • Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J. P. (2003). MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 1572 – 1574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
    • Kessler, P. J. A., Bos, M. M., Sierra Daza, S. E. C., Kop, A., Willemse, L. P. M., Pitopang, R. & Gradstein, S. R. (2002). Checklist of woody plants of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Blumea suppl. 14: 1 – 160.Google Scholar
    • IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.Google Scholar
    • Fay, M. F., Lledó, M. D., Richardson, J. E., Rye, B. L. & Hopper, S. D. (2001). Molecular data confirm the affinities of the south-west Australian endemic Granitites with Alphitonia (Rhamnaceae). Kew Bull. 56: 669 – 675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    • Richardson, J. E., Fay, M. F., Cronk, Q. C. B. & Chase, M. W. (2000b). A revision of the tribal classification of Rhamnaceae. Kew Bull. 55: 311 – 340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    • Richardson, J. E., Fay, M. F., Cronk, Q. C. B., Bowman, D. & Chase, M. W. (2000a). A phylogenetic analysis of Rhamnaceae using rbcL and trnL-F plastid DNA sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1309 – 1324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    • Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R. & Sohmer, S. H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai’i, Vol. 2, revised ed. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 97. University of Hawaii Press & Bishop Museum Press.Google Scholar
    • Jaffré, T., Bouchet, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1998). Threatened plants of New Caledonia: is the system of protected areas adequate? Biodivers. & Conservation 7: 109 – 135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    • Rye, B. L. (1996). Granitites, a new genus of Rhamnaceae from the southwest of Western Australia. Nuytsia 10: 451 – 457.Google Scholar
    • Schirarend, C. (1995). Rhamnaceae. In: E. Soepadmo & K. M. Wong (eds), Tree Flora of Sabah & Sarawak Vol. 1: 305 – 319. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
    • Greuter, W., Brummitt, R. K., Farr, E., Kilian, N., Kirk, P. M. & Silva, P. C. (1993). Names in current use for extant plant genera. Regnum Veg. 129: 1 – 1464. Published for IAPT by Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.Google Scholar
    • Medan, D. & Hilger, H. H. (1992). Comparative flower and fruit morphogenesis of Colubrina (Rhamnaceae), with special reference to C. asiatica. Amer. J. Bot. 79: 809 – 819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    • Wheeler, J. R. (ed.), Rye, B. L., Koch, B. L. & Wilson, A. J. G. (1992). Flora of the Kimberley Region. Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.Google Scholar
    • Stanley, T. D. & Ross, E. M. (1986). Flora of south-eastern Queensland, Vol. 2. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, Miscellaneous Publication QM84007.Google Scholar
    • Smith, A. C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova, Vol. 3. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.Google Scholar
    • Branch, G. B., Burgess, D. V., Dunstan, P. J., Foo, L. Y., Green, G. H., Mack, J. P. J., Ritchie, E. & Taylor, W. C. (1972). Constituents of Alphitonia species. III. Alphitexolide, a new triterpene, and other extractives. Austral. J. Chem. 25: 2209 – 2216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    • Johnston, M. C. (1972). Rhamnaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agents, London.Google Scholar
    • Johnston, M. C. (1971). Revision of Colubrina (Rhamnaceae). Brittonia 23: 2 – 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    • Whitmore, T. C. (1966). Guide to the Forests of the British Solomon Islands. Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
    • Guillaumin, A. (1964). Résultats scientifiques de la Mission franco-suisse de botanique en Nouvelle-Calédonie (1950 – 1952) III. Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. B, Bot. 15: 1 – 93.Google Scholar
    • Hoogland, R. D. (1960). The identity of Glochidion? cinerascens Miq. and of Rhamnus incanus Roxb. Kew Bull. 14: 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    • Smith, A. C. (1950). Studies of Pacific island plants, VII. Further notes on Fijian flowering plants. J. Arnold Arbor. 31: 288 – 319.Google Scholar
    • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Flore analytique et synoptique de la Nouvelle-Calédonie. Phanerogams. Office de la recherche scientifique colonial, Paris.Google Scholar
    • Mansfeld, R. (1928). Eine neue Alphitonia aus Papuasien. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 10: 222 – 224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    • Braid, K. W. (1925). XXI. Revision of the genus Alphitonia. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1925: 168 – 186.Google Scholar
    • Sprague, T. A. (1915). Emmenosperma pancherianum Baill. Hooker’s Icon. Pl., tab. 3027.Google Scholar
    • Guillaumin, A. (1911a). Catalogue des plantes phanérogames de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances (Iles des Pins et Loyalty). Ann. Mus. Colon. Marseille, sér. 2, 9: 77 – 290.Google Scholar
    • Guillaumin, A. (1911b). Remarques sur la synonymie de quelques plantes néo-calédoniennes (IV). Notul. Syst. (Paris) 2: 91 – 99.Google Scholar
    • Schlechter, R. (1908). Beiträge zur Kenntnis de Flora von Neu-Kaledonien. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 40, Beibl. 92: 20 – 45.Google Scholar
    • Schlechter, R. (1906). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora von Neu-Kaledonien. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 39: 1 – 274.Google Scholar
    • Bailey, F. M. (1899). The Queensland Flora, part 1. Published under the authority of the Queensland Government, printed by H. J. Diddams & Co., Brisbane.Google Scholar
    • Baillon, H. (1880). Rhamnaceae. In: The natural history of plants, translated by M. M. Hartog, Vol. 6: 52 – 94. L. Reeve & Co., London.Google Scholar
    • Baillon, H. (1874). Stipes Exotica Novae. Adansonia 11: 239 – 273.Google Scholar
    • Kurz, S. (1873). Note on Glochidion? cinerascens, Miq. J. Bot. 11: 207 – 208.Google Scholar
    • Mueller, F. J. H. von (1862 – 1863). Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae, Vol. 3. J. Ferres, Government Printer, Melbourne.Google Scholar
    • Endlicher, S. F. L. (1840). Genera plantarum secundum ordines naturales disposita. Fr. Beck, Vienna. Whole work published 1836 – 1850.Google Scholar


    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0