1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Smythea Seem.
      1. Smythea macrocarpa Hemsl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Peninsula Thailand to W. Malesia.

    [KBu]

    Cahen D & Utteridge T. 2018. A synopsis of the genus Smythea (Rhamnaceae). Kew Bulletin 73: 2. DOI 10.1007/S12225-017-9724-3

    Type
    Type: Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia, Perak, Larut [Taiping], Waterfall Hill, s.a., Wray 36 (lecto- type, selected here: K! [K000681974]; isolectotype: K! [K000681973]).
    Distribution
    Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra and Thailand.
    Ecology
    Lowland rain forests of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo, at lower altitudes and in valleys of Peninsular Malaysian and Sumatran montane rain forests; alt. 0 - 600 m.
    Conservation
    Near Threatened (NT). The taxon is very likely declining, and its habitat is severely fragmented given widespread destruction of much of its habitat, especially in the lowland rainforests of Borneo and the Malay Peninsula (Loucks 2001). However, with an EOO greater than 30,000 km2, the taxon does not currently qualify as threatened as it is widely distributed and there are several collections from the 1990s.
    Phenology
    Collected in flower from February to April, June and Sept.; collected in fruit in March, from May to Sept., Nov. and Dec.
    Note
    Smythea macrocarpa is recognised by its subglabrous fruit borne in the axils of persistent leaves, moderately to conspicuously prominent sec­ondary veins on the abaxial leaf surface and secondary vein pairs separated from each other by no more than a fifth of total lamina length. Variation in the number of secondary veins in leaves of a single branchlet, e.g. 3 to 9 pairs on a single branchlet of Wray 36, is a trait shared only with S. velutina.

    The only other taxa of Smythea found in the Malay Peninsula are S. lanceata, S. oblongifolia and S. velutina, and the only other taxa of Smythea recorded from Borneo are S. lanceata, S. oblongifolia and S. hirtella. The overall morphology of S. macrocarpa is very similar to that of S. velutina but S. macrocarpa differs in the glabrous abaxial leaf surfaces and fruit, although mature fruit may be sparsely hairy near their base. It differs from S. lanceata in the elliptic to oblong wing-like fruit shape, in the more numerous and conspicuously prominent secondary veins and in the more distinct leaf margin serration. Prominent secondary veins on the abaxial side and conspicuous domatia can also be found in S. oblongifolia, but S. macrocarpa differs in its flower fascicles being located in the axils of persistent leaves and in its secondary veins ascending less acutely and not readily forming secondary vein branch loops near the more finely serrated leaf margins. Smythea macrocarpa differs from S. hirtella in the flower fascicles and fruit being borne in the axils of persistent leaves and its smaller petiole to lamina length ratio.

    Ridley (1924) named Smythea lancifolia based on Penang specimens with narrow fruit and narrower and generally smaller leaves and, indeed, the fruit from the type of S. macrocarpa are much wider than specimens collected from Penang. However, with more material available now than when Ridley published S. lancifolia, considerable variation in S. macrocarpa fruit size and shape can be observed. Some specimens have mature elliptic fruit c. 3 times longer than wide (Wray 36) while others have mature oblong fruit more than 6 times longer than wide (Wray 2211). In addition, the remaining leaves on the Penang specimens are mostly distal. This would account for their being narrower and smaller.

    It would appear that the two K specimens of Wray 36 are not duplicates despite having the same collection number, because the flowering specimen notes that a fruiting specimen was sent earlier. However, because the protologue describes both flowers and fruits and, as one of these specimens is only in flower with the other only in fruit, both were used to write the protologue and lectotypification is required. Occurrences of Smythea macrocarpa in Borneo and Sumatra presented here are new. All Bornean specimens of S. macrocarpa have hitherto been identified as belong­ing to Ventilago despite their fruit having an inconspicu­ous, flattened and elongated seed chamber. Rup Chand 6177 from Meghalaya, India, was identified as S. macrocarpa by Banerjee & Mukherjee (1970: 214), but its leafless racemes and oblong leaves with little variability in the number of secondary vein pairs, and secondary vein branches readily forming loops near the leaf margin reveal that it belongs to S. oblongifolia.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Borneo, Malaya, Sumatera, Thailand

    Smythea macrocarpa Hemsl. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Hooker's Icon. Pl. 16: t. 1558 (1886)

    Accepted by

    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Hemsley 1887:t. 1558

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0