1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium arboreum (Blanco) Mabb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Somalia to Mozambique and Pacific.


    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Erect shrub or small tree up to 4 m. high; branches stout with prominent leaf scars, densely hairy or tomentose.
    Leaves spirally arranged and crowded at ends of the branches, 7–22 x 4–11 cm., ovate to obovate or oblanceolate, sometimes rhombic, greyish or brownish, velvety on both surfaces, rounded or obtuse as apex, gradually or suddenly narrowed to the base, sessile or with a petiole up to 2 cm. long.
    Cymes arranged in ample long-pedunculate terminal panicle or corymb with the peduncle, rhachis and branches ± angular or sometimes subwinged.
    Flowers numerous, sessile.
    Calyx 2.0–3.0 mm. long, velvety outside, glabrous inside, persisting after the fruits have fallen; lobes broadly ovate to elliptic, rounded at apex.
    Corolla tube as long as the calyx or sometimes a little shorter, pubescent to glabrous outside, glabrous inside, greenish; corolla lobes imbricate in bud, 1.2–1.4 x 1.0–1.4 mm., circular to oblong, rounded at apex, hairy towards the base outside, glabrous inside, white.
    Stamens inserted about the middle of the corolla tube; anthers c. 1.5 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate, cordate at the base, reaching as far as the throat or a little more, subsessile.
    Ovary c. 1 mm. long, broadly conical, ridged, glabrous.
    Style subnull; stigmatic ring c. 0.7 mm. in diam., thick, ridged, topped by the stigmatic appendix up to 1 mm. long, cleft to the base.
    Fruit c. 5 x 7 mm., subglobose, remotely ribbed to the apex, grey-brownish, glabrous; mesocarp vesicular, corky, much developed in the lower 2/3 of the fruit; mericarps with horny endocarp, bilocular, 2-seeded, with a deep and narrow fissure between the cells or sometimes with an empty vestigal cavity between them.

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Fleshy-leaved tree or shrub 1–10 m. tall with dome-shaped crown; branches and all other parts densely covered with greyish white ± silvery or golden silky hairs.
    Leaves densely placed; blades obovate, 10–30 cm. long, 3.5–11 cm. wide, rounded to obtuse or subacute at the apex, long-attenuate and decurrent into the 0.5–2.2 cm. long petiole; fallen leaves producing distinctive petiolar scars.
    Inflorescences terminal, at first ± globose, becoming paniculate-pyramidal, erect, 10–30 cm. long, 15–20 cm. wide; peduncle 5–15 cm. long, stout and dichotomous.
    Flowers sessile, very numerous, very fragrant, densely placed in two ranks on the 2–10 cm. long cymes.
    Calyx 1.5–2(–3) mm. long with slightly fleshy triangular-lanceolate to almost round lobes.
    Corolla white to pinkish; tube subcylindrical, 1.5–2 mm. long; limb 4–7 mm. wide, the lobes ovate or rounded, imbricate in bud.
    Anthers with tips just exserted.
    Ovary subglobose, 0.8–1.5 mm. diameter; stigmatic disc crowned by 2 rigid conic lobes.
    Fruit globose, 4–8 mm. diameter, the upper part occupied by the endocarp which breaks into 2 parts, each ± hemispherical with 2 locules containing the seeds and a small intermediary sterile locule; apex and dorsal surface of the carpel covered with spongy exocarpial tissue.
    Fig. 12, p. 47.
    Sea-shore just above high-water mark, sand-dunes with Casuarina, Scaevola etc.; ± sea-level
    Madagascar to tropical Asia, Malaysia, Vietnam, tropical Australia, Taiwan, Ryukyu Is. and Polynesia (Johnston gives detailed distribution) K7 Z



    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Cook Is., Fiji, Gilbert Is., Hainan, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nicobar Is., Niue, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia

    Heliotropium arboreum (Blanco) Mabb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Forster, G. [s.n.], Papua New Guinea Argusia argentea K000998155
    Hellwig, F.C. [111], Papua New Guinea Argusia argentea K000998154
    Wood, D., Seychelles Tournefortia argentea 38058.000
    Wood, D., Seychelles Tournefortia argentea 38061.000

    First published in Mabberley's Pl.-Book, ed. 4: 1101 (2017)


    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Meyer, J.-Y. (2017). Guide des plantes de Wallis et Futuna: 1-486. Au vent des iles, editions, Tahiti.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Gardner, R.O. (2011). Trees and shrubs of Niue: an identification guide to the island's indigenous and naturalised woody plants: 1-244. R.O. Gardner, Auckland, New Zealand.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1995). Flora of China 16: 1-479. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1991). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 7: 1-439. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
    • Parham, B.E.V. (1971). The Vegetation of the Tokelau Islands with special reference to the plants of Nukunonu Atoll New Zealand Journal of Botany 9: 576-609.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
    • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
    • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0