1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium arboreum (Blanco) Mabb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Somalia to Mozambique and Pacific.

    [FZ]

    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    Erect shrub or small tree up to 4 m. high; branches stout with prominent leaf scars, densely hairy or tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaves spirally arranged and crowded at ends of the branches, 7–22 x 4–11 cm., ovate to obovate or oblanceolate, sometimes rhombic, greyish or brownish, velvety on both surfaces, rounded or obtuse as apex, gradually or suddenly narrowed to the base, sessile or with a petiole up to 2 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes arranged in ample long-pedunculate terminal panicle or corymb with the peduncle, rhachis and branches ± angular or sometimes subwinged.
    Flowers
    Flowers numerous, sessile.
    Calyx
    Calyx 2.0–3.0 mm. long, velvety outside, glabrous inside, persisting after the fruits have fallen; lobes broadly ovate to elliptic, rounded at apex.
    Corolla
    Corolla tube as long as the calyx or sometimes a little shorter, pubescent to glabrous outside, glabrous inside, greenish; corolla lobes imbricate in bud, 1.2–1.4 x 1.0–1.4 mm., circular to oblong, rounded at apex, hairy towards the base outside, glabrous inside, white.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted about the middle of the corolla tube; anthers c. 1.5 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate, cordate at the base, reaching as far as the throat or a little more, subsessile.
    Ovary
    Ovary c. 1 mm. long, broadly conical, ridged, glabrous.
    Pistil
    Style subnull; stigmatic ring c. 0.7 mm. in diam., thick, ridged, topped by the stigmatic appendix up to 1 mm. long, cleft to the base.
    Fruits
    Fruit c. 5 x 7 mm., subglobose, remotely ribbed to the apex, grey-brownish, glabrous; mesocarp vesicular, corky, much developed in the lower 2/3 of the fruit; mericarps with horny endocarp, bilocular, 2-seeded, with a deep and narrow fissure between the cells or sometimes with an empty vestigal cavity between them.
    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Fleshy-leaved tree or shrub 1–10 m. tall with dome-shaped crown; branches and all other parts densely covered with greyish white ± silvery or golden silky hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves densely placed; blades obovate, 10–30 cm. long, 3.5–11 cm. wide, rounded to obtuse or subacute at the apex, long-attenuate and decurrent into the 0.5–2.2 cm. long petiole; fallen leaves producing distinctive petiolar scars.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, at first ± globose, becoming paniculate-pyramidal, erect, 10–30 cm. long, 15–20 cm. wide; peduncle 5–15 cm. long, stout and dichotomous.
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile, very numerous, very fragrant, densely placed in two ranks on the 2–10 cm. long cymes.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.5–2(–3) mm. long with slightly fleshy triangular-lanceolate to almost round lobes.
    Corolla
    Corolla white to pinkish; tube subcylindrical, 1.5–2 mm. long; limb 4–7 mm. wide, the lobes ovate or rounded, imbricate in bud.
    Anthers
    Anthers with tips just exserted.
    Ovary
    Ovary subglobose, 0.8–1.5 mm. diameter; stigmatic disc crowned by 2 rigid conic lobes.
    Fruits
    Fruit globose, 4–8 mm. diameter, the upper part occupied by the endocarp which breaks into 2 parts, each ± hemispherical with 2 locules containing the seeds and a small intermediary sterile locule; apex and dorsal surface of the carpel covered with spongy exocarpial tissue.
    Figures
    Fig. 12, p. 47.
    Habitat
    Sea-shore just above high-water mark, sand-dunes with Casuarina, Scaevola etc.; ± sea-level
    Distribution
    Madagascar to tropical Asia, Malaysia, Vietnam, tropical Australia, Taiwan, Ryukyu Is. and Polynesia (Johnston gives detailed distribution) K7 Z

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Cook Is., Fiji, Gilbert Is., Kenya, Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nicobar Is., Niue, Ogasawara-shoto, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia

    Heliotropium arboreum (Blanco) Mabb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Forster, G. [s.n.], Papua New Guinea Argusia argentea K000998155
    Hellwig, F.C. [111], Papua New Guinea Argusia argentea K000998154
    Wood, D., Seychelles Tournefortia argentea 38058.000
    Wood, D., Seychelles Tournefortia argentea 38061.000

    First published in Mabberley's Pl.-Book, ed. 4: 1101 (2017)

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
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    • Gardner, R.O. (2011). Trees and shrubs of Niue: an identification guide to the island's indigenous and naturalised woody plants: 1-244. R.O. Gardner, Auckland, New Zealand.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
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    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0