1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Polytoca R.Br.
      1. Polytoca biaurita (Hack.) Mabb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Philippines (Luzon).

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; robust; 40-50 cm long. Lateral branches ample. Leaf-sheaths loose; mostly shorter than adjacent culm internode; hispid; with tubercle-based hairs. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 12-24 cm long; 5-10 mm wide; flaccid. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy; hairy adaxially. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Synflorescence compound; paniculate. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Spatheole lanceolate; 2 cm long; scarious. Racemes 1; single; 1.5-2 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 4 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subterete. Rhachis internodes linear; 0.66-1 length of fertile spikelet; bearing a sterile companion laterally. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Sexes mixed; with 5 male spikelets per branch. Spikelets embracing internode; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Male spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 1 in a cluster (as companion), or 3 in a cluster (as terminal triad). Pedicels fused to internode; united wholly; filiform.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels (the 2 lower pairs), or well-developed (above); male; lanceolate; 5 mm long; shorter than fertile.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 7-7.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square; 1.5 mm long; base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; chartaceous; without keels; winged on margins; winged broadly; winged above. Lower glume surface asperulous; rough on flanks; not waisted; glabrous. Lower glume apex dentate; 2 -fid. Upper glume ovate; 4.5 mm long; chartaceous; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 4.5 mm long; membranous; 3 -veined; scaberulous. Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma ovate; 4.5 mm long; hyaline; without keel. Palea linear; hyaline; without keels. Palea apex dentate; 2 -fid.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 3 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; dorsally compressed; 2.5 mm long; pallid. Embryo 0.75 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (and depressed).
    Spikelets
    Male spikelets distinct from female; with pedicels fused to rhachis; lanceolate; 5 mm long. Male spikelet glumes 2. Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels (the 2 lower pairs), or well-developed (above); male; lanceolate; 5 mm long; shorter than fertile. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 7-7.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square; 1.5 mm long; base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely.
    Male
    Male spikelets distinct from female; with pedicels fused to rhachis; lanceolate; 5 mm long. Male spikelet glumes 2.
    Distribution
    Asia-tropical: Malesia.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. Hackel 1997.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Philippines

    Polytoca biaurita (Hack.) Mabb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 1998 Merrill, E.D. [4282], Philippines Chionachne biaurita K001057011

    First published in Mabberley's Pl.-Book, ed. 4: 1102 (2017)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2019). World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP Database) The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0