1. Family: Rhamnaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Smythea Seem.
      1. Smythea oblongifolia (Blume) Cahen & Utteridge

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Assam to China (Yunnan, Guangxi) and Malesia.

    [KBu]

    Cahen D & Utteridge T. 2018. A synopsis of the genus Smythea (Rhamnaceae). Kew Bulletin 73: 2. DOI 10.1007/S12225-017-9724-3

    Distribution
    Cambodia, China (Guangxi, Yunnan), India (Andamans, Meghalaya), Indonesia (Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Malaku, Riau Islands, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah), Philippines (Lu­zon, Mindoro, Palawan), Thailand, Vietnam. Map 5.
    Ecology
    Tropical habitats including lowland moist broadleaf forests and dry forests, and montane rain forests; alt. 0 - 1450 m.
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC). Smythea oblongifolia is widely distributed across South-East Asia and is not threatened.
    Phenology
    Collected in flower in Jan., April, July and Sept. to Dec.; collected in fruit from Jan. to April, July and Nov.
    Note
    Smythea oblongifolia is recognised by the flower fascicles and fruit borne in leafless racemes or panicles (Fig. 5), and the 5 - 7 pairs of conspicuously prominent secondary veins diverging from the primary vein at usually 20 -35°, the narrowest angles of divergence for secondary veins in Smythea. The only other taxon of Smythea which shares the leafless raceme character is S. hirtella and both taxa can be found in Sabah. However, S. oblongifolia differs in its conspicuously prominent secondary veins, which are connected by secondary vein branches forming distinct loops near the leafmargin, its conspic­uous domatia and its shorter relative petiole length. Smythea oblongifolia was originally placed in Ventilago as V. oblongifolia by Blume (1826). Its fruit have a wing­like apical appendage — a character that is shared by all Ventilagineae except S. lanceata and S. poomae. However, S. oblongifolia unequivocally presents a flat­tened seed chamber, which is a diagnostic character for members of Smythea (Weberbauer 1895; Lauterbach 1922; Suessenguth 1953;Banerjee& Mukherjee 1969, 1970). In addition, S. oblongifolia fruit are slightly twisted near their base and their flowers have distinctly papillose nectary disks; characters, except for S. lanceata and S. poomae, considered here to be typical for Smythea. Note, from the four sheets available in Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, L0013785 is chosen as the lectotype here because it has both fertile and vegetative shoots and, in addition, seemingly has an original collecting slip mounted on the sheet. Merrill (1909) noted that Ventilago luzoniensis spec­imens resemble S. oblongifolia, but differ in their shorter leaves. Specimens of V. luzoniensis examined here, including the type specimen (Vidal 198), appear identical to those of S. oblongifolia. These specimens of V. luzoniensis retain mostly distal leaves which could account for their smaller size, which, regardless, is still within the range observed for S. oblongifolia. According to Stafleu & Cowan (1986: 727), Vidal's top set of specimens are in Madrid (although duplicates were sent to many other herbaria), and therefore, the MA specimen is selected as lectotype here. Study of the descriptions and type specimens of Ventilago ochrocarpa and V. fascigera, confirm that V. ochrocarpa corresponds to Smythea oblongifolia and that V. fascigera corresponds to a distal branch of S. oblongifolia with immature fruit. From the three specimens of V. ochrocarpa available as syntypes in P, we have selected a specimen from Pierre's herbarium which he has given his number but it clearly states on the label that it was collected by Harmand — both numbers are given in the protologue and in the type citation above. Occurrence of Smythea oblongifolia in India had not hitherto been reported, but King s.n from South Andaman, identified as S. calpicarpa by Banerjee & Mukherjee (1970: 213), and Rup Chand 6177 from Meghalaya, identified as S. macrocarpa by Banerjee & Mukherjee (1970: 214), are best determined as S. oblongifolia because of the leafless racemes, narrow-acute angle of divergence and secondary vein branches forming distinct loops near the leaf margin.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Philippines, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam

    Smythea oblongifolia (Blume) Cahen & Utteridge appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    s.coll. [198], Philippines Ventilago luzoniensis K000681913

    First published in Kew Bull. 73(1)-2: 18 (2018 publ. 2017)

    Accepted by

    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Tagane, S. & al. (2017). Bokor National Park A picture guide of forest trees in Cambodia 4: 1-774. Center for Asian Conservation Ecology, Kyushu University, Japan.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0