1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Thaumatophyllum Schott
      1. Thaumatophyllum bipinnatifidum (Schott ex Endl.) Sakur., Calazans & Mayo

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Bolivia to SE. & S. Brazil and NE. Argentina.

    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    Distribution
    SE. & S. Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, ? Bolivia.
    Habitat
    Hemi-epiphytic or terrestrial in rainforest, gallery forests, and various seasonal forest types including cerrado; terrestrial or rooted-aquatic in open swampy areas, occasionally rupicolous in open shrubby coastal and submontane vegetation.
    General Description
    STEM: erect, decumbent and sprwaling or semi-erect, branching sparingly in basal parts, up to 3.5m tall, 5 – 13 cm diam.; adventitious roots dimorphicin epiphytic plants, anchor roots of smaller diam. attaching plant to host tree, feeder roots of larger diam. connecting stem to soil; internodes 1 mm long or less; prophyll scars short, up to about 1 cm long; intravaginal squamules sometimes absent, up to 20 mm long, 0.5 - 2.5 mm wide at base, usually triangular and ± flattened sometimes rather massive and conic, patent, sparse to densely abundant and persistent; foliage leaf scars 4 - 6 cm long, 3 - 7 cm wide, circular to transverse-elliptic, paler than rest of stem surface. LEAF: prophyll deciduous, up to at least 45 cm long; petiole 70 - 120( - 150) cm long, (0.7 -)1 - 1.7 cm diam. at apex, broadly sulcate adaxially with sharply angled margins or flattened or occasionally slightly convex, rounded abaxially, sheath c. 12 cm long on leaves subtending inflorescences; leaf blade usually bipinnatifid, either weakly or very strongly so, occasionally pinnatifid, very variable in lobe and sinus shape, broadly cordiform-sagittate in outline, overall length 75- 120 cm, overall width 60 - 120 cm, upper surface glossy dark green, lower surface paler, ± glossy; anterior division 45- 83 cm long, (25- )50 - 100 cm wide at base, apical lobe acute-acuminate to rounded-apiculate, often oblique, longer or shorter than adjacent primary lateral lobes, primary lateral lobes (5- ) 6 - 9 ( - 10) per side, basal primary lateral lobes (12 - )17 - 35( - 55) cm long, 4- 22 cm wide at widest point, outline linear to spathulate, apex ± triangular with tip acute-acuminate to rounded, margins normally lobed, sometimes very strongly so, rarely repand or ± entire, acroscopic secondary lobes (1 - )2 - 5, usually longer and more numerous than basiscopic ones, basiscopic secondary lobes 0 - 5, the longest (0.8 -)3- 17 cm long, midveins usually present, main sinuses of basal primary lateral lobes ending 1.5- 10 cm from midrib, 0.4 - 5 cm wide near sinus apex, primary lateral veins as many as primary lateral lobes, arising at an angle of 30 - 90 deg., concolorous with blade on upper surface, whitish-green and often pink- or peach-tinged on lower surface; posterior divisions 27 - 40 cm long, 0.29 - 0.41 x overall blade length, 30 - 37( -60) cm wide, basal ribs denuded for 2 - 6 cm, primary acroscopic lobes 2 - 6, the longest 18 - 35 cm long, usually fewer than primary basiscopic lobes, secondary lobes usually present, primary basiscopic lobes (3- )4 - 7( - 8), longest 9 - 23 (-37) cm long, secondary lobes rarely developed. INFLORESCENCE: normally solitary, rarely in pairs; peduncle 5- 10 cm long, (1.5-) 2 - 5 cm diam. at apex, green; spathe (12 - )16 - 33 cm long, (2 - )3- 5.5 (- 6.5) cm diam. at middle, recurrent for 3 - 6.5 (- 8.5) cm, somewhat constricted centrally at anthesis, outer surface of basal half green, maroon-purple or chocolate brown, apical half paler, greener or more yellowish, sometimes with resolute margins when expanded at anthesis, inner surface of spathe entirely creamy white, rarely purple to rose-tinged in inflorescences which are strongly pigmented on outer surface; spadix 15 - 25( - 28.5) cm long overall, fertile male zone (3 - )6 - 8.5( - 9) cm long, (1.5- )2 - 2.7(- 3.2) cm diam. , ellipsoid to cylindric, apex acute to rounded, white, sterile male zone longer and thicker than fertile male zone, (5. 5 - )6.5 - 11( - 14.5) cm long, (1.5 - )2 - 3(- 3.2) cm diam. near apex, increasing gradually to (2 - )2.5 - 3.7( - 4) cm diam. near base, white, female zone (2.8 -)3 - 5( - 5.7) cm long, (1.7 - )2 - 3.3(- 4.) cm diam., tapering upwards, adnate dorsally to spathe for 1/2 to 3/4 of length. Flowers: stamens 5 - 5.5( - 6.5) mm long, 0.8 - 1.2 mm wide at apex, staminodes 2 - 6 mm long, 1-2 mm wide at apex, mostly prismatic in transverse section, cylindric to cyanate, truncate at apex, in basal part of sterile zone usually tortoise and longer than the rest; gynoecium 3.8 - 7.5 mm long, ovary 2 - 3.7 mm diam., cylindric to somewhat barrel-shaped, occasionally with rawhide cells in axial region, locales (6 - )7 - 13( - 15) per ovary, ovules (1 - )2 - 4( - 6) per locale, evenly spread on locule axis from base to above middle or even to near apex, style body usually present, as wide as or distinctly narrower than ovary and style crown, sometimes lacking, raphide cells abundant, sparse or absent in axial region around stylar canals, compitum varying from extremely shallow to penetrating deeply into ovary axis, style crown strongly lobed, style lobes tanniniferous or not, central dome varying from absent to very well developed and itself lobed, the lobes naked and projecting beyond stigma hairs, stigma 2 - 3.8 mm wide, entirely covering style crown lobes or absent from their dorsal sides, contiguous with adjacent stigmas, tannin hairs varying from absent to abundant. INFRUCTESCENCE: berries 1.4 cm long, 0.7 - 0.8 cm wide, ± cylindric, white or yellow when ripe, with edible, sweet-tasting pulp; seeds 3.5 - 4 mm long, 1.7 - 1.8 mm diam., subcylindric, slightly broader at micropylar end, either sarcotestate with non-arillate funicle or lacking a sarcotesta and with an arillate funicle and raphe, funicle sometimes bearing a blob of sticky mucilaginous material in ripe seed.
    [CATE]
    Use
    P. bipinnatifidum is an important plant in indigenous cultures in Paraguay, northern Argentina and probably Brazil. In a fine paper, Crisci & Gancedo (1971) discuss the use of the roots for binding and the berries as a sweet food and medicinal source. Peckolt & Peckolt (1890) describe its medicinal properties under the names P. bipinnatifidum and P. selloum.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Paraguay

    Introduced into:

    Belize

    Thaumatophyllum bipinnatifidum (Schott ex Endl.) Sakur., Calazans & Mayo appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 1986 Mayo, S.J. [Phil. 3], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183384
    May 1, 1986 s.coll. [s.n.] Philodendron bipinnatifidum K000950228 Unknown type material
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.421
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.423
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.426
    Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.614
    Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.785
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 44905.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46273.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46276.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46279.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46280.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46281.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46325.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46331.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46333.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46334.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46335.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46337.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46338.000
    Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46373.000
    Mayo, S.J. [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.450
    Mayo, S.J. [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 49385.000
    Mayo, A.K. [177], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.451
    Mayo, A.K. [177], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 49384.000
    Mayo, A.K. [177], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 49959.000
    Mayo, A.K. [177], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 58053.000
    Mayo, A.K. [177], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 59072.000
    Mayo, A.K. [177], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 59086.000
    Mayo, S. [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.416
    Mayo, S. [581], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.420
    Mayo, S. [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.425
    Mayo, S., Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 44909.000
    Mayo, S. [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 46324.000
    Mayo [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 58017.000
    Mayo [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 58914.000
    Mayo [574], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 59023.000
    Mayo [177] Philodendron bipinnatifidum 59070.000
    Mayo et al, Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum 29047.783
    Philodendron bipinnatifidum 18911.000
    Burchell, W.J. [4933], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183396
    Burchell, W.J. [4933], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183397
    Burchell, W.J. [7290], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183398
    Burchell, W.J. [7290], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183399
    Burchell, W.J. [3041], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183400
    Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183411
    Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183407
    Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183408
    Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183409
    Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183410
    Mayo, S.J. [589], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183391
    Mayo, S.J. [589], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183392
    Mayo, S.J. [589], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183393
    Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183403
    Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183404
    Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183405
    Mayo, S.J. [852], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183406
    Zappi, D.C. [2102], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183382
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [s.n.], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183372
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [16499], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183379
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [s.n.], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183373
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [17322], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183374
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [17322], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183375
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [17322], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183376
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [16498], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183377
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [16499], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183378
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [16499], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183380
    Marx, B. [PHIL/3], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183383
    Marx, B. [PHIL 3], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183385
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183386
    s.coll. [A933] Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183395
    s.coll. [s.n.] Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183401
    Temponi, L.G. [410], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183387
    Temponi, L.G. [410], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183389
    Temponi, L.G. [410], Brazil Philodendron bipinnatifidum K001183390

    First published in PhytoKeys 98: 60 (2018)

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.

    Sources

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/