1. Family: Salvadoraceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Azima Lam.
      1. Azima tetracantha Lam.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Indian Subcontinent to Myanmar.

    [FZ]

    Salvadoraceae, A. R. Vickery. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Dioecious shrubs to 3(5) m. high, stems usually much branched, sometimes scrambling, bearing paired or solitary axillary straight spines.
    Stem
    Young stems green, sometimes 4–angled, glabrous or pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf–blades elliptic or oblong to suborbicular, 1·3–5·0 cm. long, 0·7–4·5 cm. wide, with stiff mucro at apex.
    Flowers
    Flowers small, in axillary clusters, often elongating, into interrupted spikes near ends of twigs. Male flowers: stamens inserted at base of rudimentary ovary, alternating with petals, anthers exserted. Female flowers: staminoides with short filaments bearing sagittate sterile anthers; ovary up to 4–5 mm. long; 2–locular with 1–2 ovules per locule; stigma sessile.
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, 4–toothed, 2–4 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla greenish, petals 4, 2–5 mm. long.
    Male
    Male flowers: stamens inserted at base of rudimentary ovary, alternating with petals, anthers exserted.
    Female
    Female flowers: staminoides with short filaments bearing sagittate sterile anthers; ovary up to 4–5 mm. long; 2–locular with 1–2 ovules per locule; stigma sessile.
    Fruits
    Berries green, turning white, 0·6–0·8 cm. diameter, stigma persistent.
    Seeds
    Seeds discoidal, dark brown.
    [FTEA]

    Salvadoraceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    A much branched, tangled, evergreen shrub, 0.6–3 m. tall, with spines up to 3.5 cm. or more long, pale green, glabrous, slightly pubescent or hairy (in some Indian material); branches ± angled, often arching or scandent.
    Leaves
    Leaves yellow-green; lamina elliptic or oblong to suborbicular, 1.4–5.7(–6.5) cm. long, 0.5–5.6 cm. wide, mucronate (the mucro small but sharp); venation rather prominent.
    Flowers
    Flowers small, greenish, in small axillary clusters, often running into interrupted spikes at the ends of the twigs.
    Fruits
    Berries green, turning white, similar to those of mistletoe, ± 0.6–0.8 cm. in diameter.
    Seeds
    Seeds discoidal, black.
    Figures
    Fig. 1.
    Habitat
    In scrub on eroded ground, and particularly on ± saline soils near lakes and seasonal rivers, also in coastal bushland (often not far from high-water mark); 0–1120 m.
    Distribution
    K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T5 T6 T8 U2 Z widespread from Arabia and the Somali Republic through East and Central Africa to South and South West Africa, Madagascar, Aldabra and Comoro Is., extending to India, Ceylon and Philippines

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Comoros, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Oman, Rwanda, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Mauritius

    Azima tetracantha Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 10, 2010 Leliyo, G. [4307], Tanzania K000545693
    Jan 1, 1911 Wight [1887], India K000854321
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7152], Kenya 28463.000
    Wood, J. [3129], South Africa K000233338 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000854322
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 7492] Monetia barlerioides K001127400
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 7492] Monetia barlerioides K001127401
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 7492] Monetia barlerioides K001127402

    First published in Encycl. 1: 343 (1783)

    Accepted by

    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1991). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 7: 1-439. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1981). Flore des Mascareignes 111-120: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1968). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Salvadoraceae: 1-9.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1981). Flore des Mascareignes 111-120: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 494 (1961).
    • Robyns in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 9: 234, t. 26 (1960).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 486 (1958).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 547 (1949).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 511 (1948).
    • Engl., V. E. 3(2): 247, fig. 122/B (1921).
    • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 4(1): 22 (1902).
    • Lam., Illustr., t. 807 (1799).
    • Lam., Encycl. 1: 343 (1783)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0