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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, Indian Subcontinent to Myanmar.

[FZ]

Salvadoraceae, A. R. Vickery. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

Morphology General Habit
Dioecious shrubs to 3(5) m. high, stems usually much branched, sometimes scrambling, bearing paired or solitary axillary straight spines.
Morphology Stem
Young stems green, sometimes 4–angled, glabrous or pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf–blades elliptic or oblong to suborbicular, 1·3–5·0 cm. long, 0·7–4·5 cm. wide, with stiff mucro at apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers small, in axillary clusters, often elongating, into interrupted spikes near ends of twigs. Male flowers: stamens inserted at base of rudimentary ovary, alternating with petals, anthers exserted. Female flowers: staminoides with short filaments bearing sagittate sterile anthers; ovary up to 4–5 mm. long; 2–locular with 1–2 ovules per locule; stigma sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, 4–toothed, 2–4 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla greenish, petals 4, 2–5 mm. long.
sex Male
Male flowers: stamens inserted at base of rudimentary ovary, alternating with petals, anthers exserted.
sex Female
Female flowers: staminoides with short filaments bearing sagittate sterile anthers; ovary up to 4–5 mm. long; 2–locular with 1–2 ovules per locule; stigma sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries green, turning white, 0·6–0·8 cm. diameter, stigma persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds discoidal, dark brown.

[FTEA]

Salvadoraceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Morphology General Habit
A much branched, tangled, evergreen shrub, 0.6–3 m. tall, with spines up to 3.5 cm. or more long, pale green, glabrous, slightly pubescent or hairy (in some Indian material); branches ± angled, often arching or scandent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves yellow-green; lamina elliptic or oblong to suborbicular, 1.4–5.7(–6.5) cm. long, 0.5–5.6 cm. wide, mucronate (the mucro small but sharp); venation rather prominent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers small, greenish, in small axillary clusters, often running into interrupted spikes at the ends of the twigs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries green, turning white, similar to those of mistletoe, ± 0.6–0.8 cm. in diameter.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds discoidal, black.
Figures
Fig. 1.
Habitat
In scrub on eroded ground, and particularly on ± saline soils near lakes and seasonal rivers, also in coastal bushland (often not far from high-water mark); 0–1120 m.
Distribution
widespread from Arabia and the Somali Republic through East and Central Africa to South and South West Africa, Madagascar, Aldabra and Comoro Is., extending to India, Ceylon and Philippines K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T5 T6 T8 U2 Z

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Evergreen, often scandent shrub, up to 3 m tall, usually glabrous; bark yellowish-grey; spines up to 4 cm long, usually in 4’s
Morphology Leaves
Leaves yellow-green; blade elliptic to almost round, 2–6 x 1–6 cm, cuneate at the base, mucronate at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers cream or yellow-green, in axillary clusters or spikes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries translucent white when ripe, globose, 6–8 mm in diam.
Distribution
N1–3; S2, 3 widespread in tropical and southern Africa, but absent in Ethiopia and Eritrea, also in the Arabian Peninsula and extending to India and South-East Asia.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–1740 m.
Vernacular
Goda halal, kidi, loh-loh, qodax tool, simoodi (Somali)

Native to:

Aldabra, Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Comoros, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Oman, Rwanda, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Mauritius

Azima tetracantha Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Sep 10, 2010 Leliyo, G. [4307], Tanzania K000545693
Jan 1, 1911 Wight [1887], India K000854321
Milne-Redhead, E. [7152], Kenya 28463.000
Wood, J. [3129], South Africa K000233338 Unknown type material
s.coll. [s.n.], India K000854322
s.coll. [Cat. no. 7492] Monetia barlerioides K001127402
s.coll. [Cat. no. 7492] Monetia barlerioides K001127401
s.coll. [Cat. no. 7492] Monetia barlerioides K001127400

First published in Encycl. 1: 343 (1783)

Accepted by

  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1981). Flore des Mascareignes 111-120: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1991). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 7: 1-439. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1968). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Salvadoraceae: 1-9.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1981). Flore des Mascareignes 111-120: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by Abdi M. Dahir [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 4(1): 22 (1902).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 486 (1958).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 494 (1961).
  • Engl., V. E. 3(2): 247, fig. 122/B (1921).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 547 (1949).
  • Lam., Encycl. 1: 343 (1783)
  • Lam., Illustr., t. 807 (1799).
  • Robyns in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 9: 234, t. 26 (1960).
  • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 511 (1948).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0