1. Family: Santalaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Osyris L.
      1. Osyris lanceolata Hochst. & Steud.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Canary Islands, S. Iberian Peninsula Baleares, Sahara to S. Africa, Socotra, Indian Subcontinent to S. China and Indo-China.

    [FTEA]

    Santalaceae, P.M. Polhill, B.A., Ph.D., F.L.S. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree, 1.5–9(–14) m tall, all parts glabrous; bark coarsely furrowed; slash bright crimson; branches somewhat flattened and sometimes rather pendent.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually alternate, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, rarely obovate, 1.5–6.5x0.7–4 cm, abruptly apiculate, base cuneate, veins ± immersed, only midvein raised beneath and running back down stem in a narrow ridge; petiole 1–3 mm long, articulated to a small cushion.
    Flowers
    Flowers either hermaphrodite or male, plants androdioecious, hermaphrodite flowers in axils of upper leaves; peduncles solitary, usually 1-flowered, occasionally flowers in 2–3-flowered dichasia; male flowers both axillary and terminal, often panicled, each peduncle usually terminating in an umbellate cluster of flowers, rarely flowers solitary or in a 2–3-flowered dichasium; peduncles 4–28 mm long; bracts and bracteoles linear-lanceolate, 1–3 mm long.
    Perianth
    Perianth yellowish green, leathery; hermaphrodite flowers:tube 0.5–0.6 mm long, obscured inside by disk, lobes 3(–4), spreading, ovate-deltate, 1.5–2x1.8–2.2 mm, tips slightly hooded; male flowers similar.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3(–4); filaments 0.5–0.7 mm long; anthers 0.5 mm long.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2–2.8 mm long, ovules 3(–4) in hermaphrodite flowers, ovules and placenta aborted in male flowers; style 0.8–1 mm long, thick, cylindric; stigma in hermaphrodite flowers normally 4- rarely 3-lobed, lobes ellipsoid, prominent; in male flowers both style and stigma aborted or rudimentary.
    Fruits
    Fruit ellipsoid, 5–6.5 mm in diameter when dry, epicarp thin, fleshy, red when ripe.
    Figures
    Fig. 5 (page 24).
    Habitat
    Upland dry evergreen forest and mist forest, with associated bushland and grassland, extending down rivers and from there marginally into deciduous woodland; (50–)900–2700 m
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 widespread in Africa from Algeria to Ethiopia and south to South AfricaEurope (Iberian peninsula and Balearic Is.), Asia (India to China), Socotra
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Type from Algeria.
    Habit
    Shrub or small tree, 1.2–6 m tall, all parts glabrous Shrub or small tree, 1.2–6 m tall, all parts glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually alternate, 15–65 × 7–40 mm, elliptic or elliptic.oblong, rarely obovate, apex abruptly apiculate, base cuneate, veins ± immersed, only midvein raised below and running back down stem in narrow ridge; petiole 1–3 mm long, articulated to a small cushion Leaves usually alternate, 15–65 × 7–40 mm, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, rarely obovate, apex abruptly apiculate, base cuneate, veins ± immersed, only midvein raised below and running back down stem in narrow ridge; petiole 1–3 mm long, articulated to a small cushion.
    Flowers
    Flowers either hermaphrodite or male, plants androdioecious, hermaphrodite flowers in axils of upper leaves; peduncles solitary, usually 1-flowered, occasionally flowers in 2–3-flowered dichasia; male flowers both axillary and terminal, often panicled, each peduncle usually terminating in an umbellate cluster of flowers, rarely flowers solitary or in a 2–3-flowered dichasium Flowers either hermaphrodite or male, plants androdioecious, hermaphrodite flowers in axils of upper leaves; peduncles solitary, usually 1-flowered, occasionally flowers in 2–3-flowered dichasia; male flowers both axillary and terminal, often panicled, each peduncle usually terminating in an umbellate cluster of flowers, rarely flowers solitary or in a 2–3-flowered dichasium.
    Ovary
    Ovary 2–2.8 mm long, ovules 3 (rarely 4) in hermaphrodite flowers, ovules and placenta aborted in male flowers; style 0.8–1 mm long, thick, cylindric; stigma in hermaphrodite flowers normally 4- rarely 3-lobed, lobes ellipsoid, prominent; in male flowers both style and stigma aborted or rudimentary
    Ecology
    Forest and woodland, often along streams, in gullies, under cliffs and in other rocky sites; also granite outcrops and other rocky places on open hillsides; c. 1100–2300 m.
    Note
    Great variation in leaf size and shape has elicited a considerable synonymy. The above synonymy is not exhaustive. Bark used in tanning; fruits edible.
    Distribution
    Also in Europe (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands), Asia (India to SE Asia) and widespread in Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Socotra, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Dem. Rep. Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Angola, South Africa, Namibia). Mozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Zambia BOT N, ZAM N, ZAM C, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ M, MOZ S Botswana
    Peduncles
    Peduncles 4–28 mm long. Peduncles 4–28 mm long
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles c. 1–3 mm long, linear-lanceolate. Bracts and bracteoles c. 1–3 mm long, linear-lanceolate
    Perianth
    Perianth yellowish-green, leathery; hermaphrodite flowers: tube 0.5–0.6 mm long, obscured inside by disk, lobes usually 3, rarely 4, 1.5–2 × 1.8–2.2 mm, spreading, ovate-deltoid, tips slightly hooded; male flowers similar. Perianth yellowish-green, leathery; hermaphrodite flowers: tube 0.5–0.6 mm long, obscured inside by disk, lobes usually 3, rarely 4, 1.5–2 × 1.8–2.2 mm, spreading, ovate-deltoid, tips slightly hooded; male flowers similar
    Stamens
    Stamens normally 3, rarely 4; filaments 0.5 mm long; anthers 0.5 mm long. Stamens normally 3, rarely 4; filaments 0.5 mm long; anthers 0.5 mm long
    Pistil
    Ovary 2–2.8 mm long, ovules 3 (rarely 4) in hermaphrodite flowers, ovules and placenta aborted in male flowers; style 0.8–1 mm long, thick, cylindric; stigma in hermaphrodite flowers normally 4- rarely 3-lobed, lobes ellipsoid, prominent; in male flowers both style and stigma aborted or rudimentary.
    Fruits
    Fruit 5–6.5 mm in diameter when dry, ellipsoid, epicarp thin, fleshy, red when ripe. Fruit 5–6.5 mm in diameter when dry, ellipsoid, epicarp thin, fleshy, red when ripe.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Angola, Baleares, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, China South-Central, China Southeast, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Free State, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Northern Provinces, Portugal, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Osyris lanceolata Hochst. & Steud. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1960 Balfour, I.B. [630], Socotra K000431850
    Jan 1, 1960 Schimper, W. [281], Ethiopia K000431852
    Jan 1, 1960 Rogers, F.A. [6214], Botswana K000285525
    Jan 1, 1960 Roth [84], Ethiopia K000431851 Unknown type material
    Morocco K000431840
    Salzmann [s.n.], Morocco K000431842
    Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Morocco K000431836
    Schimper, W. [s.n.], Algeria K000431835
    Schimper, W. [s.n.], Algeria K000431838
    Maw, G. [s.n.], Morocco K000431839
    Webb, P.B. [s.n.] K000431841
    Bové, N. [s.n.], Algeria K000431843
    Bové, N. [30], Algeria K000431844
    Bové [s.n.], Algeria K000431837
    Hansen, O.J. [3210], Botswana K000285526
    Mott, P.J. [293], Botswana K000285527
    Craven, P. [3773], Namibia K000285528
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4036] Osyris wightiana K001038015

    First published in Exsicc. (Unio Itin.) 1832: s.n. (1832)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Polhill, R.M. (2005). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Santalaceae: 1-27.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Not accepted by

    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press. [Cited as Osyris quadripartita.]

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees Sthn. Africa: 194, photo. 34 (2002). TAB. 50, fig. B.
    • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees Sthn. Africa: 156 (1977).
    • Vierteljahrsschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 106: 388 fig. 1 (1961).
    • Exsicc. Unio Itin. Schimper s.n. cum descript. (1832).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1999). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 13: 1-284. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1985). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 3. revised edition Sommerfeltia 1: 5-103.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • M. Coates Palgrave, Trees Southern Africa: 194, photo. 34 (2002).
    • Thulin in Fl. Somalia 2: 145, fig. 94 (1999).
    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas p. 353, fig. (1994).
    • Stauffer in Viert. Nat. Ges. Zürich 106: 388, fig. 1 (1961).
    • Hochst. & Steud., Exsicc. Unio Itin. Schimper s.n. cum descript. (1832).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0