1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Brugmansia Pers.
      1. Brugmansia × candida Pers.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Colombia to Ecuador. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders and as animal food, boundry barrier support and an ornamental plant.

    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 200 - 3200 m.
    Distribution
    Cultivated and naturalised in Colombia.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    Habit
    Shrub.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Peru, Pavon s.n. (BM, holo., fide Hepper, 1998)
    Habit
    Small trees, shrubs or undershrubs, 3–6 m high, with spreading branches
    Leaves
    Leaves dark green, succulent, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 19–26(–50) × 9.5–15(–25) cm, bases obliquely cuneate, margins entire, sinuate or sinuate-dentate with up to 6 acute antrorse teeth, apices acute, glabrescent to pilose above, pilose/velutinous below especially dense on lower midribs and veins, hairs eglandular; petioles 5–9(–25) cm long, pilose. Flowers solitary, pendulous, white with green veins, sometimes becoming yellowish or greenish as mature, usually fragrant; pedicels 3.5–5 cm long, pilose to velutinous, pendulous
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, zygomorphic, spatulate, green, 8–11.5(–14) cm long, pilose or velutinous externally, glabrescent, splitting into spathe 3–6 cm from base, tapering apically into narrowly triangular densely pilose projections up to 6 mm long
    Corolla
    Corolla tubular at base becoming trumpet-shaped above, (14–)20–32 cm long; basal tube 12–13.5 cm long, often inflated to fill the calyx cavity, not usually extended beyond the calyx; petals fused almost to the apex, where flared with the margin 5-toothed, the narrowly triangular lobes becoming caudate, extending up to 5 cm, and often recurving
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments free for 4–6 cm; anthers grey/brown, linear, 2.1–3 cm long, 2 mm broad, with dense villous eglandular hairs, not connivent
    Ovary
    Ovary pale green, elliptic to conical, ± 16 mm long and 4 mm wide, glabrous; style 15–19 cm long, exserted ± 10 mm beyond anthers but included; stigma 3–5 mm long and 2–2.8 mm wide
    Fruits
    Fruit green to yellowish-green, ovoid to fusiform, 15–20 × 3–4 cm; pedicels elongated
    Seeds
    Seeds angular, ± 6 mm long and 8 mm wide
    Figures
    Fig 9/7, p 48
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    This is a natural hybrid between the Andean South American B. aurea Lagerh. and B. versicolor Lagerh. which is thought to have originated on the west and central slopes of the Central Ecuadorian Andes. It is now widely cultivated as an ornamental shrub and as a hedging plant in many countries with tropical or mild climates. Commonly known as the large white-flowered Floripondio the species has also become a successful weed in many African countries as an escape from cultivation. It was first illustrated in Ruiz & Pavon’s Flora Peruviana, 2, pl.128 (1799) where it was mistakenly identified as Linnaeus’ Datura arborea (Lockwood, 1973, ined.). There are many forms and cultivars of this species, with double and even triple-formed corollas being common; the cultivar Culebra has distinct linear-ligulate leaves.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: T3 (cultivated) Range: Probably native to Peru, cultivated in many African countries and occasionally occurring as an escape
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada y naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 200 - 3200 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe.
    Habit
    Arbusto
    [UPB]
    Animal Food
    Infructescences - The nectar is eaten by birds (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
    Boundary Barrier Support Plants
    Live plant (in situ) - Used as a barrier, near swamps and rivers (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
    Ornamentals
    Live plant (in situ) - Ornamental, grown for flowers (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
    Other Chemicals
    Flowers - The flowers that fall on the ground are turned into fertiliser (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Colombia, Ecuador

    Introduced into:

    Borneo, Cameroon, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Galápagos, Ghana, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Madagascar, Marquesas, Mexico Central, Mexico Southwest, New Guinea, New Zealand North, Peru, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Venezuela

    Common Names

    Spanish
    Cacao sabanero, floripondio, guanto, tonga, yopa.

    Brugmansia × candida Pers. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [2314], Cameroon K000339141
    Feb 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [314], Cameroon K000339142
    Jul 1, 1976 Kerber, E. [18], Mexico K000063330
    Jul 1, 1976 Bourgeau, E. [1847], Mexico K000063334
    Jul 1, 1976 Pringle, C.G. [6321], Mexico K000063328
    Jul 1, 1976 Pringle, C.G. [13126], Mexico K000063329
    Jul 1, 1976 Bourgeau, M. [363], Mexico K000063331
    Jul 1, 1976 Graham [1020], Mexico K000063332
    Jul 1, 1976 Hancock, W. [10], Mexico K000063336
    Jul 1, 1976 Botteri, M. [863], Mexico K000063335
    Jul 1, 1976 González O., J. [963], Mexico K000063337
    Schultes, R.E. [20079], Colombia Brugmansia × amesianum K000586058 isotype
    Schultes, R.E. [20079], Colombia Brugmansia × amesianum K000586059 isotype
    Colombia Datura × candida 29047.248
    Colombia Datura × candida 29047.254
    s.coll. [s.n.], Colombia Datura × candida 29047.239
    Ortega, R. [22], Mexico Datura × candida K000063054
    Ortega, R. [318], Mexico Datura × candida K000063055
    Avendaño R., S. [22], Mexico Datura × candida K000063056
    Velázquez L., C. [66], Mexico Datura × candida K000063053

    First published in Syn. Pl. 1: 216 (1805)

    Accepted by

    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Hay, A., Gottschalk, M. & Holguín, A. (2012). Huanduj. Brugmansia: 1-424. Florilegium, Glebe, Australia.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Beaman, J. & Anderson, C. (2004). The plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural History Publications (Borneo).
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Hay, A., Gottschalk, M. & Holguín, A. (2012). Huanduj. Brugmansia: 1-424. Florilegium, Glebe, Australia.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
    • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F.Z. 8(4): 5 (2005).
    • Fl. Egypt 6: 117 (1998);
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 359 (1985);
    • Syn. Pl. 1: 216 (1805);

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/