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This species is accepted, and its native range is Sicilia to Kriti, Egypt to S. Africa and W. India.
Lycium shawii

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub, up to 2.5 m high, or rarely a small tree up to 4.5 m high, glabrous, bisexual
Morphology General Thorns
Thorns 5–15 mm long on young stems, longer on old stems
Morphology Leaves
Petiole 2–5 mm long; leaf-blade oblanceolate to obovate or elliptic, 12–35(–50) x 4–10(–15) mm, herbaceous to ± fleshy, acute to rounded at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers hanging on 2–8(–12) mm long pedicels
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx narrowly tubular, 3–5 mm long; lobes 0.5–0.8 mm long, equal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pale mauve with purple venation to creamy white with white lobes; tube 10–16 mm long; lobes 3–4 mm long, spreading
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted just above middle of tube, 3 included and 2 slightly exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berry subglobose, 3–5 mm in diam., red
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2 x 1 mm.
Distribution
N1–3; C1; S1–3 Abd el Kuri, Socotra, Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, through eastern Africa to South Africa and Swaziland, also in Mediterranean Europe, Middle East, on the Arabian peninsula, and eastwards to western India.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–1800 m.
Vernacular
Holaad, surad, surud (Somali).
Note
This has sometimes been regarded as a form of L. europaeum L., and the distinction between L. europaeum and L. shawii needs further study.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: North Africa, Shaw, Travels in Barbary: 49, fig. 349! (1738), lecto. designated by Venter (2000)
Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or subshrubs to 3(–4) m high, occasionally small trees to 4.5 m.
Morphology Stem
Stems erect, spreading or scrambling, often arching, densely branched, grey, brown or reddish, with glabrous (rarely pubescent) spines 3–14 mm long on short branches or brachyblasts, usually glabrescent, young stems occasionally with short simple eglandular- or occasionally glandular-headed hairs interspersed with stalked glands
Morphology Leaves
Leaves stipulate, usually fasciculate in clusters of up to 14 around spine on brachyblasts, sometimes solitary and alternate, membranaceous, coriaceous or succulent, green, grey or greyish-blue, elliptic, ovate, obovate, oblanceolate or spatulate, 0.5–1.8(–8) × 0.3–0.8(–3) cm, bases cuneate and often decurrent, margins entire, apices obtuse, surfaces glabrescent, sometimes short hairs on veins and margins, with stalked glands on laminas; petioles absent to 1 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences of solitary or paired flowers among fascicled leaves, epedunculate; pedicels densely pilose, occasionally glabrescent, erect in flower when 2–5(–12) mm long, erect or splayed in fruit when 4–12 mm long. Flowers sometimes sweetly scented
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular, occasionally cupulate, 2–4(–6) × 1–2.5 mm centrally but always at least twice as long as broad, glabrescent, rarely moderately pilose externally, with 5 unequal lobes 0.3–1.5(–2) × 0.5–2 mm, acute, with ciliate fringes, slightly enlarged in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, cream, yellow, pale pink, purple, blue, purplish-white or bluish often fading to white or cream, sometimes tube darker, salverform to infundibular, (7–)9–13 mm, widening to 2–3(–4) mm broad beneath lobes, glabrescent externally, pilose below internally; lobes spreading or recurved, often with purplish or dark central veins extending down the tube, obovate to spatulate, 1.5–3.5(–5) × 1–3 mm, obtuse, glabrescent but sometimes with pilose fringe, giving overall flower diameter of 4–9 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually 5, unequal, the longer anther or anther pair exserted and the shorter two or three included; filaments free for 1–7(–10) mm; anthers yellow becoming brown, (0.7–)1–1.5 × 0.5–1.3 mm, occasionally one anther abortive when ± 0.3 × 0.2 mm. Ovary smooth, ovoid to conical, 1–2(–3) × 0.6–1.5(–2) mm, glabrous; disc inconspicuous, 0.8–1.3 mm diameter; style (6.5–)8–11 mm long; stigma 0.5–1.3 mm diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a smooth red or orange, occasionally yellow, ovoid to globose, glossy berry, (3–)4–6(–8) × 3–5(–6) mm, glabrous, enclosed basally by adherent and slightly enlarged calyx which splits irregularly often appearing bilabiate as berry matures
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 9–24 per berry, yellowish to brown, discoidal, reniform or angular and irregular, (1.2–)1.8–2.5 × 1–2 mm
Figures
Fig 10, p 51
Ecology
Rocky outcrops, montane scrub, riverine thickets, Acacia-Balanites-grassland, AcaciaCommiphora bushland, Brachystegia-Isoberlinia woodland, termite mounds, lava plains, stony, alluvial, sandy or volcanic soils (when often associated with Acacia, Grewia and Cordia), and in fallow or degraded land; 15–2000 m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
Lycium species are often referred to as Box-thorns or Matrimony vines. Lycium shawii is extensively utilised throughout Africa; the leaves are used as a tobacco ( K 1) and as a green vegetable ( K 3), leaf extracts are used medicinally for stomache ache ( K 1), root extracts as a cure for coughs, skin rashes or urinary infections ( K 2), and ground dried berries to enhance female fertility ( K 1). Ruffo, Birnie & Tengnäs (in Edible Wild Plants of Tanzania (2002)) described the use of leaves from plants identified as “ L. europaeum” as a vegetable and to treat stomach-ache and constipation; the boiled roots to treat coughs and mouth sores and the plants for hedging, fodder and ornamental purposes throughout Tanzania. These plants undoubtedly belong to L. shawii, and are also heavily browsed by goats, sheep, camels and giraffe. The species is notoriously morphologically variable, in part reflecting its extremely widespread distribution. In eastern Africa heavily grazed plants of this species become stunted bushes with smaller leaves and flowers, while in Kenya and Tanzania its leaves can be up 8 × 3 cm ( cf. Kibue, 89 ( K 6), Polhill 118 ( K 3) & Milne-Redhead & Taylor 11061 ( T 7)), though the characteristic small leaves are often found on the same plant. A number of varieties of this species have been described, largely from Arabian and Middle Eastern localities; these are described or dealt with by Venter (2000) who also gives a number of additional synonyms – these names have not been encountered on FTEA material. The protologues of the eight species described from east Africa by Dammer (1912–15) and Lanza (1939) leave little doubt that they are all synonyms of L. shawii, though the Berlin holotypes have been destroyed.  Many East African specimens have been identified as L. europaeum L., but according to Venter this species is confined to North Africa and the Mediterranean. One of the major features distinguishing these two species is the shape of the flowering calyx, with that of L. shawii being narrowly tubular and at least two to three times longer than broad, while that of L. europaeum is campanulate to broadly tubular with the length equalling the breadth. However, although many intermediates have been found on E African herbarium material, since Venter studied this genus in great detail throughout Africa, her conclusions have been followed here. It is probable that Lycium austrinum Miers included in T.T.C.L. also belongs to L. shawii. However, the account described its stems as being unarmed or rarely armed with short-spined stems; its leaves as lanceolate and the flowers borne in clusters of 2–5; it is possible that the plants identified as this species which was also described as being widespread but not common in Kolo and Kondoa might be distinct and correctly identified.
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T2 T3 T5 T7 T8 Range: From Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Eritrea and Ethiopia southwards to Botswana, Namibia and NE South Africa Range: Also widespread from Mediterranean Europe and Arabia to W India

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Erect, spreading, sometimes scandent, intricately branched, very spiny shrub 1–2.5(3) m high, infrequently a small tree up to 4.5 m, glabrous Erect, spreading, sometimes scandent, intricately branched, very spiny shrub 1–2.5(3) m high, infrequently a small tree up to 4.5 m, glabrous.
Morphology Stem
Stems slightly angular, robust; long branches slightly curving, sometimes pendulous; spines 5–10(15) mm long, leafless except when occurring on very old stems; bark greyish-white to dark ash-grey, seldom dark brown to purplish-brown; brachyblasts greyish-white Stems slightly angular, robust; long branches slightly curving, sometimes pendulous; spines 5–10(15) mm long, leafless except when occurring on very old stems; bark greyish-white to dark ash-grey, seldom dark brown to purplish-brown; brachyblasts greyish-white.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves fascicled in clusters of 2–6, with a waxy excrescence around their insertion; petiole 2–5 mm long; lamina bright green and glossy adaxially, slightly paler abaxially, herbaceous to semi-succulent, (7)20–35(54) × (4)8–10(15) mm, obovate to elliptic or lanceolate, apex acute to rounded, glabrous or with microscopic, short glandular hairs Leaves fascicled in clusters of 2–6, with a waxy excrescence around their insertion; petiole 2–5 mm long; lamina bright green and glossy adaxially, slightly paler abaxially, herbaceous to semi-succulent, (7)20–35(54) × (4)8–10(15) mm, obovate to elliptic or lanceolate, apex acute to rounded, glabrous or with microscopic, short glandular hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, 5-merous, pendulous. Flowers hermaphrodite, 5-merous, pendulous; pedicels (1)6–8 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels (1)6–8 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3–5 mm long, glabrous; tube narrowly tubular, 1. 5–2 mm wide; lobes equal, 0.4–0.6 mm long, triangular, slightly acute, erect Calyx 3–5 mm long, glabrous; tube narrowly tubular, 1.5–2 mm wide; lobes equal, 0.4–0.6 mm long, triangular, slightly acute, erect.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla creamy-white to pale mauve with purple venation, (10)12–16 mm long, glabrous outside; tube narrowly tubular, sometimes slightly curved, glabrous to sparsely pilose on the inside just below filament insertions; limb 7–11 mm across, creamy-white to pale mauve; lobes (1. 5)3–4 mm long, semi-ovate-oblong, spreading, sparsely ciliate Corolla creamy-white to pale mauve with purple venation, (10)12–16 mm long, glabrous outside; tube narrowly tubular, sometimes slightly curved, glabrous to sparsely pilose on the inside just below filament insertions; limb 7–11 mm across, creamy-white to pale mauve; lobes (1.5)3–4 mm long, semi-ovate-oblong, spreading, sparsely ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens unequal, attached above the middle of the corolla tube, 3 included and 2 slightly exserted; filaments (3)4–7(9) mm long, glabrous Stamens unequal, attached above the middle of the corolla tube, 3 included and 2 slightly exserted; filaments (3)4–7(9) mm long, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk inconspicuous, pale brownish-yellow Disk inconspicuous, pale brownish-yellow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1. 5–2 × 1. 5 mm, globose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 10–12 mm long and just shorter than the longest stamen
Ecology
Dry to relatively moist areas such as hilly country to the edge of floodplains, riverbanks and dambos, Acacia, mopane and mixed woodland and wooded grassland, extending into miombo mainly on termitaria, cultivated areas and along roadsides; soils varying from clayey, loamy to halophytic; 910–1463 m.
Distribution
Widely distributed in Mediterranean Europe (southern Italy, Sicily and Crete) and eastwards throughout the Middle East and Arabia to west India; also the most widespread species in Africa, occurring from Egypt and Ethiopia southwards throughout East Afric BOT N, ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N Malawi Zambia Botswana.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 1.5–2 × 1.5 mm, globose; style 10–12 mm long and just shorter than the longest stamen.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit red, 3–5 mm in diameter, globose to slightly obovoid, apparently edible. Fruit red, 3–5 mm in diameter, globose to slightly obovoid, apparently edible
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2 × 1.5 mm, ovate in outline. Seeds 2 × 1. 5 mm, ovate in outline.

[FSOM]
Use
The species is much used in traditional medicine in Africa The leaves may be eaten as a green vegetable.

Doubtfully present in:

Algeria, Tunisia

Native to:

Botswana, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kenya, Kriti, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Malawi, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Lycium shawii Roem. & Schult. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 20, 2007 Bingham, M.G. [112769], Zambia K000449333
Jul 23, 2004 Thomson, T. [s.n.], Yemen K000759457 syntype
Jul 23, 2004 Hooker, J.D. [80], Yemen K000759456 syntype

First published in Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 4: 693 (1819)

Accepted by

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Daoud, H.S. in Al-Rawi, A. (1985). Flora of Kuwait 1: 1-224. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
  • Milgahid, A.M. (1989). Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Schönbeck-Temesy, E. (1972). Flora Iranica 100: 1-82. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Collect. Bot. 7: 361, 362 cum fig. 2, 365 (1968).
  • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 56: 176 (1987)
  • Syst. Veg. 4: 693 (1819).
  • Tax. Lycium Afr.: 197, fig. 8.2.43 (2000). TAB. 8.
  • The Genus Lycium in Africa, Kew Herb. unpubl. rep.: 1, 6 (1974).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Schönbeck-Temesy, E. (1972). Flora Iranica 100: 1-82. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Pickering, H. & Awale, A. I. (2018). Introduction to plants in Central Somaliland. Ponte Invisibile, Redsea Cultural Foundation.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Africa, Kew ined. (1974)
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 188 (1987)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 40 (2005)
  • Fl. Egypt 6: 92 (1998)
  • Fl. Egypt, 3: 44 (2002)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 110 (2006).
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 200 (2006)
  • Syst. Veg. 4: 693 (1819)
  • Taxonomy Lycium in Africa: 197 (2000)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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