1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Nicandra Adans.
      1. Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Peru to NW. Argentina. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Atropa physalodes L., “Habitat in Peru”, Jussieu s.n., Herb. LINN 246.3 (LINN!, lecto. designated by Schönbeck-Temesy in Rechinger (ed.), Fl. Iranica: 2 (1972)). [See also Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 340 (2007)]
    Habit
    Annual herbs 0.5–1.5(–2) m high.
    Stem
    Main stems erect or spreading, smooth, green to brown or purple, slender, sometimes succulent, occasionally becoming woody at the base, sparsely pilose becoming glabrescent
    Leaves
    Leaves mid- to dark green or purplish, broadly ovate, ovate-lanceolate to rhomboidal, with 2–8(–10) main acute lobes, 6–12(–38) × 3–8(–36) cm, bases cuneate, often decurrent, margin coarsely sinuate, sinuate-dentate or lacerate, apices acute to acuminate, upper surfaces glabrescent to sparsely pilose and puberulous on veins and midribs, lower surfaces usually glabrescent, margins often pilose; petioles (1–)2–4(–6) cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers usually solitary; pedicels dark green to purple, 1–2.4(–5) cm long, erect becoming nodding below flowers, puberulous
    Calyx
    Calyx broadly conical, dark green to purple, lobes broadly ovate, 1.1–2(–3) × 0.7–1.4(–1.8) cm, bases sagittate to cordate, apices acute to acuminate, prominently veined, puberulous internally and externally
    Corolla
    Corolla blue or mauve becoming white in lower half with five blue or purple spots at base of corolla tube, often connected by purple veins from each lobe lobe through corolla tube, broadly campanulate to cyathiform with narrower basal half enclosed by calyx lobes; lobes fused almost to apex, very shallow and bilobed, 1–5 × 10–20 mm, upper half of corolla recurving to expose basal purple spots, sparsely pilose internally, puberulous externally
    Stamens
    Stamens with filaments 4–6 mm long; anthers greenish to yellow, sometimes with distinct purple margins, obovoid to oblong, 2.4–3.5(–4) mm long. Ovary dark green to purplish, obovoid to conical, 2.5–4 × 2.3–3.5 mm; disc whitish but sometimes mottled with purple on lower half, 2.5–4.5 mm broad; style 3–4.5(–5) mm long, glabrous to pilose below; stigma yellow, 0.5–1.5 mm broad
    Fruits
    Berries smooth, green to yellow, globose, 1–2 cm diameter, enclosed by enlarged accrescent chartaceous cordate calyx lobes 2.2–3.6 × 1.3–2.2 cm
    Seeds
    Seeds mid- to dark- brown, orbicular, 1.2–1.6(–1.8) × 1.1–1.4(–1.6) mm
    Figures
    Fig 11, p. 55.
    Ecology
    A troublesome weed of cultivation, sometimes becoming a serious pest of gardens, and of wheat, maize or coffee crops; also in forests, forest clearings, secondary bushland, grassland, on wasteland and sometimes on wet or swampy soils. (130–fide
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    This species is sometimes cited as N. physalodes (L.) Scop. Although Scopoli mentioned Atropa physalodes beneath his generic protologue in 1777 (Int. Hist. Nat.: 182), he did not make the combination with Nicandra, meaning that Gaertner’s combination takes precedence. The specific epithet physalodes is often misspelt as physaloides after Gaertner. The species is commonly known as the Apple of Peru or Shoo-fly; many East African herbarium specimens have been erroneously annotated as being either the Cape Gooseberry or Chinese lantern both of which refer to Physalis. There are three sheets labelled Physalis daturaefolia in Lamarck’s herbarium (P-LA), though none are actually labelled as type specimens. The first (LM472/3) is a good flowering specimen, which also has Atropa physalodes written beneath the species name; this has been selected here as the lectotype. The second (LM472/4) is mainly vegetative with a flattened fruiting calyx, while the third (LM472/5) is only composed of leaves. Leaf size is particularly variable in this species, while seed numbers can also vary greatly, and Horton (1979) found that these ranged from 69 to 638 in just six berries. The flowers usually only open fully for a few hours around mid-day. The stems, leaves and flowers of this species are all reported to be edible, and are sold in local Tanzanian markets (Ruffo, Birnie & Tengnäs, Edible Wild Plants of Tanzania: 476 (2002)).
    Distribution
    Flora districts: K3 K4 K5 T1 T2 T3 T7 T8 Range: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Burundi, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa and Madagascar
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Pedicel
    Fruiting pedicel elongating to c.  4 cm Pedicel (0.6)1. 2–3(3.5) cm long, at least initially clothed with minute, 1–3-celled ± patent eglandular hairs, and also with a few many-celled glandular hairs.
    Ovary
    Ovary 2.5–4.5 × 2.4–5 mm.
    Style
    Style 4–4.8 mm long, straight
    Fruits
    Fruit a dry berry, pale green to yellow or brown when ripe, erect, enclosed within the enlarged calyx, 12–18 mm in diameter, gynophore up to c.  2 mm long on the base of the calyx Fruit a dry berry, pale green to yellow or brown when ripe, erect, enclosed within the enlarged calyx, 12–18 mm in diameter, gynophore up to c. 2 mm long on the base of the calyx.
    Seeds
    Seeds light to dark brown, 1. 5–2 × 1. 2–1. 7 mm, sticky Seeds light to dark brown, 1.5–2 × 1.2–1.7 mm, sticky.
    Note
    Common name: “Apple of Peru”. Fruit poisonous. Chromosome number: 2n=20, 22
    Distribution
    Botswana. BOT SE, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ M Native to tropical South America (probably from Peru), now almost cosmopolitan and widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics, occurring as a weed but sometimes cultivated as a garden flower. Found throughout tropical and subtropical Africa and the Zambia Malawi Mozambique Zimbabwe
    Habit
    Annual herb, usually much-branched and often ± robust, (0.1)0.2–2.5(3) m high, sometimes purple tinged. Annual herb, usually much-branched and often ± robust, (0.1)0.2–2.5(3) m high, sometimes purple tinged
    Branches
    Branches glabrous or sparsely hairy at least around the nodes with a few simple, short hairs. Branches glabrous or sparsely hairy at least around the nodes with a few simple, short hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, membranaceous; petiole (0.5)1–7 cm long, ± winged, ± sheathing at the base; lamina (2)3–23.5(38) × (1)1.5–13.5(36) cm, ovate to lanceolate, sometimes triangular- or rhombic-ovate, ± oblong or elliptic, broadly cuneate to attenuate or occasionally truncate to subcordate, often oblique at the base, ± decurrent on the petiole, obtuse acute or acuminate at the apex, usually irregularly and coarsely toothed or lobed on the margins, glabrous or with a few small hairs mainly above, sometimes only on the nerves and the margins. Leaves alternate, membranaceous; petiole (0.5)1–7 cm long, ± winged, ± sheathing at the base; lamina (2)3–23.5(38) × (1)1. 5–13.5(36) cm, ovate to lanceolate, sometimes triangular- or rhombic-ovate, ± oblong or elliptic, broadly cuneate to attenuate or occasionally truncate to subcordate, often oblique at the base, ± decurrent on the petiole, obtuse acute or acuminate at the apex, usually irregularly and coarsely toothed or lobed on the margins, glabrous or with a few small hairs mainly above, sometimes only on the nerves and the margins
    Flowers
    Flowers erect at first then nodding, inserted beside the petiole-base and appearing axillary, or axillary in the upper leaves; pedicel (0.6)1.2–3(3.5) cm long, at least initially clothed with minute, 1–3-celled ± patent eglandular hairs, and also with a few many-celled glandular hairs; fruiting pedicel elongating to c. 4 cm. Flowers erect at first then nodding, inserted beside the petiole-base and appearing axillary, or axillary in the upper leaves.
    Calyx
    Calyx green becoming brown and chartaceous, segments 5, 9–22 mm long, ovate,± strongly cordate-sagittate at the base and ± acuminate at the apex, concave, with adjacent margins doubled back (reduplicate) forming longitudinal wings, the margins fused for almost half their length, sparsely puberulous with small glandular hairs and scattered eglandular hairs; fruiting calyx brown and papery, accrescent, (1.8)2–3.5(4) × 1.6–3.7 cm, with segments strongly reduplicate and reticulately-veined. Fruiting calyx brown and papery, accrescent, (1. 8)2–3.5(4) × 1. 6–3.7 cm, with segments strongly reduplicate and reticulately-veined Calyx green becoming brown and chartaceous, segments 5, 9–22 mm long, ovate,± strongly cordate-sagittate at the base and ± acuminate at the apex, concave, with adjacent margins doubled back (reduplicate) forming longitudinal wings, the margins fused for almost half their length, sparsely puberulous with small glandular hairs and scattered eglandular hairs.
    Corolla
    Corolla pale pinkish violet or pale blue to purple on the limb and upper tube, usually whitish in lower part, (1.3)1.7–3 cm long, c. 27 mm in diameter, campanulate, with a mixture of very short glandular and eglandular hairs at least along the nerves, and also with numerous longer eglandular hairs inside the tube around the base of the filaments; tube often turning yellowish with age; limb (2)2.3–5(5.7) cm across, the lobes spreading. Corolla pale pinkish violet or pale blue to purple on the limb and upper tube, usually whitish in lower part, (1. 3)1. 7–3 cm long, c.  27 mm in diameter, campanulate, with a mixture of very short glandular and eglandular hairs at least along the nerves, and also with numerous longer eglandular hairs inside the tube around the base of the filaments; tube often turning yellowish with age; limb (2)2.3–5(5.7) cm across, the lobes spreading
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 4–7 mm long, sometimes with long, eglandular hairs; anthers often greenish or bluish-margined, 2.5–3.5 mm long. Stamen filaments 4–7 mm long, sometimes with long, eglandular hairs; anthers often greenish or bluish-margined, 2.5–3.5 mm long
    Pistil
    Ovary 2.5–4.5 × 2.4–5 mm; style 4–4.8 mm long, straight.
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=20, 22.
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 1000 - 2800 m.
    Habit
    Herb or shrub.
    Distribution
    Native from Colombia.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 2800 m.; Andes, Valle del Cauca.
    Habit
    Hierba, arbusto
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [UPB]
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Chile Central, Chile North, Peru

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Amur, Angola, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Galápagos, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Illinois, India, Iran, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Oman, Palestine, Primorye, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 2010 Andriamahay, M. [2324], Madagascar K000658307
    Jan 1, 1999 Lefroy [s.n.] K001073100
    Drummond, R.B. [2516], Tanzania 17701.000
    Hinton, G.B. [5271], Mexico K000063234
    Hinton, G.B. [1834], Mexico K000063235
    Hinton, G.B. [6857], Mexico K000063236
    Hinton, G.B. [9888], Mexico K000063237
    Hinton, G.B. [13431], Mexico K000063238
    Hinton, G.B. [5271], Mexico K000063239
    Arbo, M.M. [5271], Brazil K001073095
    Heringer, E.P. [5983], Brazil K001073096
    Agra, M.F. [1317], Brazil K001073094
    Mueller, F. [153], Brazil K001073098
    Mueller, F. [307], Brazil K001073099
    Bourgeau, M. [979], Mexico K000063232
    Mwachala, G. [1281], Kenya K000449281
    Botteri, M. [843], Mexico K000063233
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 232], Great Britain K000914294
    Glaziou, A. [4901], Brazil K001073097

    First published in Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 237 (1791)

    Accepted by

    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (eds.) (2015). New floristic records in the Balkans: 28 Phytologia Balcanica 21: 367-399.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Sluschny, H. & Schlüter, U. (2012). Zur Flora von Schwerin und Umgebung Botanischer Rundbrief für Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 49: 51-59.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Bergmeier, E. (2011). New floristic records, confirmations and other phytogeographical notes from Crete (Greece) Willdenowia 41: 167-177.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Mouterde, P. (1983). Nouvelle flore du Liban se de la Syrie 3: 1-578. Dar El-Machreq Sarl, Beyrouth, Liban.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Schönbeck-Temesy, E. (1972). Flora Iranica 100: 1-82. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fl. Cabo Verde, fam. 71: 48, t. 7 (2002). TAB. 6.
    • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 244 (1994).
    • Grabandt, Weeds of Crops & Gard. South. Afr.: 129 cum fig. (1985) as “physaloides”.
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 368 (1985).
    • J.M. Gibson, Wild Fl. Natal (Coast. Reg.): 91, t. 91 fig. 1 (1975) as “physaloides”.
    • Moriarty, Wild Fl. Malawi: 81, t. 41.3 (1975).
    • Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 77: 42 (1973) as “physaloides”.
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 307 (1972) as “physaloides”.
    • Jacot Guillarmod, Fl. Lesotho: 239 (1971).
    • Garcia de Orta 17: 277 (1969).
    • Binns, First Check List Herb. Fl. Malawi: 98 (1968) as “physaloides”.
    • M.D. Henderson & J.G. Anderson, Common Weeds S. Afr.: 268, fig. 133 (1966).
    • Kirkia 1: 62 (1961).
    • Common Rhod. Weeds: fig. 84 (1955).
    • Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 10 (1954).
    • Wild, S. Rhod. Bot. Dict.: 107 (1953) as “physaloides”
    • Martineau, Rhod. Wild Fl.: 70 (1952).
    • Rhod. Agric. J., Bull. 1106: 2, fig. 32 (1939) as “physaloides”.
    • Marloth, Fl. S. Africa 3, 1: 118 (1932) as “physaloides”.
    • F.C. 4, 2: 109 (1904) as “physaloides”.
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 434 (1852) as “physaloides”.
    • Fruct. 2: 237, t. 131 fig. 2 (1791) as “physaloides”.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Sluschny, H. & Schlüter, U. (2012). Zur Flora von Schwerin und Umgebung Botanischer Rundbrief für Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 49: 51-59.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Bergmeier, E. (2011). New floristic records, confirmations and other phytogeographical notes from Crete (Greece) Willdenowia 41: 167-177.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Mouterde, P. (1983). Nouvelle flore du Liban se de la Syrie 3: 1-578. Dar El-Machreq Sarl, Beyrouth, Liban.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Schönbeck-Temesy, E. (1972). Flora Iranica 100: 1-82. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1965). Flora Kazakhstana 8: 1-445. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Eth. 5: 156 (2006).
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 198 (2006)
    • F.Z. 8(4): 26 (2005)
    • Fl. Egypt 3: 46 (2002)
    • Fl. Egypt 6: 86 (1998)
    • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 244 (1994)
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 368 (1985)
    • Garcia de Orta 17(3): 277 (1969)
    • E.P.A. 2: 855 (1963)
    • W.F.K.: 90 (1948)
    • Fl. Cap. 4(1): 109 (1904)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 434 (1852)
    • Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 237 (1791), as “physaloides”

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0