1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Nicotiana L.
      1. Nicotiana glauca Graham

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Bolivia to Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) and S. South America.

    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Distribution
    Native from Colombia.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    Ecology
    Alt. 1450 - 2700 m.
    Habit
    Shrub or tree.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1450 - 2700 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Arbusto, arbolito
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated Edinburgh from seed collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Smith s.n. (E, holo., photo!) fide Goodspeed in Chron. Bot. 16: 335 (1954) & Purdie et al. in Fl. Australia 29: 57 (1982)
    Habit
    Shrub or small tree up to 5(–10) m, quick-growing.
    Stem
    Stems woody, erect, often densely branched; all stems glabrescent and glaucous
    Leaves
    Leaves glaucous, lanceolate, ovate, ovate- lanceolate or elliptic, 3.2–10(–28) × 1.6–5(–18.5) cm, upper leaves often smaller, bases cuneate to cordate, margins entire to sinuate, apices acute, glabrescent; petioles 2.2–5.5(–12) cm long
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal lax panicles, bracteate; pedicels 4–8 mm long and erect in flower to recurved, 7–9 mm long in fruit when always recurved, glabrescent to sparsely pilose; bracts linearlanceolate, pilose
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, 8–13 × 3–7 mm, glabrescent externally with ciliate margins, lobes unequal, narrowly triangular, 1–3.5 × 1.1–2.5 mm, acute to acuminate, enlarging in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow to greenish-yellow, tubular below, ampliate beneath lobe lobes, 3–4 cm long and 6–9 mm diameter apically; tube 3–3.6 × ± 3 mm basally increasing to 6–8 mm apically below lobes, densely pilose/villous externally with spreading multicellular glandular- and eglandularheaded hairs, glabrous internally; lobes broadly triangular, 1.5–2.5 × 3.5–5 mm, acute, spreading after anthesis
    Stamens
    Stamens unequal with fifth usually slightly shorter; filaments free for 2.1–2.3 cm, with shorter free for ± 1.6 cm; anthers green becoming brown, cordiform, 1.2–2 × 1.2–2 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid to conical, 2–3.5 × 1.7–3.5 mm; disc crenulate, 2–3.5 mm diameter; style 1.8–3.2 cm long; stigma green, 0.6–0.8 × 0.7–1.5 mm
    Fruits
    Capsules brown, ellipsoid or ovoid, 0.8–1.2 × 5–8 mm, glabrous, dehiscing by four glabrous smooth valves, subtended by accrescent glabrescent calyx
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, ovoid, cuboidal, rectangular, angular or discoid, 0.3–0.8(–1) × 0.3–0.5(–0.7) mm
    Figures
    Fig 3/11–13, p 22
    Ecology
    Escape from cultivation often found in dry rocky disturbed soils, on steep slopes, waste ground, river- and lake-banks and roadsides, occasionally in grassland, and associated with Crotalaria and Jasminum; 1600–1900 m
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    Often known as the tree tobacco or mustard tree. The species is also grown as a medicinal plant for the production of anabasine, which is a starting material for insecticide (Mansfeld 2001); the leaves are said to be poisonous to cattle, sheep and horses.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: K3 K4 K6 Range: Native to South America, now naturalised in many tropical, subtropical and temperate regions
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type a plant cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1827, raised from seed sent by Smith from Buenos Aires, Argentina; no specimen now known.
    General
    Virgate, rapidly growing, short-lived shrub or small tree, less often a herb, loosely few–much branched sometimes from the base, ± succulent, 2–6 m tall (elsewhere said to reach 10 m), mostly quite glabrous
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 5–10 mm long, slender, later markedly thickened distally, 11–14 mm long and incurved in fruit
    Calyx
    Calyx 8–13 × 3–5 mm, tubular, glabrous to shortly pubescent; teeth unequal to equal, 1. 5–4 × 0.8–3 mm, triangular or ovate-triangular, acute or acuminate, somewhat ciliate, the membrane between them lacking or nearly so; in fruit somewhat enlarged to 14 × 9 mm and enclosing it Calyx 8–13 × 3–5 mm, tubular, glabrous to shortly pubescent; teeth unequal to equal, 1.5–4 × 0.8–3 mm, triangular or ovate-triangular, acute or acuminate, somewhat ciliate, the membrane between them lacking or nearly so; in fruit somewhat enlarged to 14 × 9 mm and enclosing it.
    Corolla
    Corolla green, becoming yellowish or orangish, sometimes greenish at the apex of the lobes, (2.7)3–4(4.3) cm long, tubular-salviform; tube narrow to just above the calyx, then dilated and slightly broadened upwards, with a distinct swelling beneath the short limb, slightly constricted above and below the swelling, glabrous or minutely pubescent; limb 1. 5–4 mm long, (3)4–8(10) mm across, nearly circular to nearly pentagonal in outline; lobes 0.5–1. 2 × 2–3 mm, triangular-ovate, acute to rounded, erect to spreading Corolla green, becoming yellowish or orangish, sometimes greenish at the apex of the lobes, (2.7)3–4(4.3) cm long, tubular-salviform; tube narrow to just above the calyx, then dilated and slightly broadened upwards, with a distinct swelling beneath the short limb, slightly constricted above and below the swelling, glabrous or minutely pubescent; limb 1.5–4 mm long, (3)4–8(10) mm across, nearly circular to nearly pentagonal in outline; lobes 0.5–1.2 × 2–3 mm, triangular-ovate, acute to rounded, erect to spreading.
    Stamens
    Stamens subequal or unequal, glabrous, included or rarely exserted; filaments 2–2.5 cm long, attached at the same level at or near the dilation of the corolla tube, geniculate just above the insertion; anthers 1. 2–1. 7 × 1–1. 8 mm Stamens subequal or unequal, glabrous, included or rarely exserted; filaments 2–2.5 cm long, attached at the same level at or near the dilation of the corolla tube, geniculate just above the insertion; anthers 1.2–1.7 × 1–1.8 mm.
    Disc
    Disk 0.5–0.6 mm high, thick, quite coalescent to adnate upwards to the basal part of the ovary, obsoletely lobed to almost truncate Disk 0.5–0.6 mm high, thick, quite coalescent to adnate upwards to the basal part of the ovary, obsoletely lobed to almost truncate.
    Ovary
    Ovary 2.2–3 × 2 mm, conical, glabrous.
    Style
    Style 3–3.5 cm long, straight
    Fruits
    Fruit often pendulous, brownish, papyraceous or chartaceous, 8–12 × 5–8 mm, oblong-ellipsoid, glabrous, splitting above into 4 valves by septicidal and loculicidal slits Fruit often pendulous, brownish, papyraceous or chartaceous, 8–12 × 5–8 mm, oblong-ellipsoid, glabrous, splitting above into 4 valves by septicidal and loculicidal slits.
    Seeds
    Seeds brown or golden-brown, 0.5 × 0.3 mm, prismatic, laterally compressed, honeycombed-reticulate Seeds brown or golden-brown, 0.5 × 0.3 mm, prismatic, laterally compressed, honeycombed-reticulate.
    Note
    Chromosome number: 2n=24 Common name: “Tree Tobacco” or “Wild Tobacco”.
    Ecology
    Dry riparian vegetation, seasonal watercourses, waste and cultivated ground and other areas of disturbance particularly along roads, mine tips and near dunes; up to 1460 m .
    Distribution
    BOT SW, BOT SE, ZAM C, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MOZ GI Native to Argentina and possibly Bolivia, now extending westwards to Chile and northwards throughout Central America and the Antilles to southern and western United States; widely distributed usually as a weed in warm and warm-temperate regions of both he Zimbabwe Zambia Botswana Mozambique
    Habit
    Virgate, rapidly growing, short-lived shrub or small tree, less often a herb, loosely few–much branched sometimes from the base, ± succulent, 2–6 m tall (elsewhere said to reach 10 m), mostly quite glabrous.
    Branches
    Branches terete to angular, younger parts glaucous, greenish or blue-purplish, sometimes covered with a waxy bloom. Branches terete to angular, younger parts glaucous, greenish or blue-purplish, sometimes covered with a waxy bloom
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, glaucous to ± green; petiole 1–8.5(12.5) cm long, ± slender, not winged; lamina thickish, rubbery to softly leathery, 2–14(29.5) × 1–7(19) cm, broadly lanceolate, ovate to elliptic, sometimes obovate or spathulate, base attenuate, cuneate to rounded, truncate or subcordate, equal-sided to unequal-sided, apex acute to obtuse or rounded, sometimes apiculate or acuminate, entire or somewhat repand, both surfaces smooth, sometimes covered with a whitish waxy bloom. Leaves solitary, glaucous to ± green; petiole 1–8.5(12.5) cm long, ± slender, not winged; lamina thickish, rubbery to softly leathery, 2–14(29.5) × 1–7(19) cm, broadly lanceolate, ovate to elliptic, sometimes obovate or spathulate, base attenuate, cuneate to rounded, truncate or subcordate, equal-sided to unequal-sided, apex acute to obtuse or rounded, sometimes apiculate or acuminate, entire or somewhat repand, both surfaces smooth, sometimes covered with a whitish waxy bloom
    Flowers
    Flowers erect to ± pendulous, in broad, flat, loose, paniculiform inflorescences 6–15 cm long, at the ends of the branches and in the axils below; bracts and bracteoles small, subulate, ephemeral; pedicels 5–10 mm long, slender, later markedly thickened distally, 11–14 mm long and incurved in fruit. Flowers erect to ± pendulous, in broad, flat, loose, paniculiform inflorescences 6–15 cm long, at the ends of the branches and in the axils below; bracts and bracteoles small, subulate, ephemeral.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2.2–3 × 2 mm, conical, glabrous; style 3–3.5 cm long, straight.
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24.
    [UPB]
    Materials
    Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Unspecified Materials Chemicals
    Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil South, Chile Central, Chile North, Paraguay, Uruguay

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Algeria, Ascension, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central American Pac, Colombia, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Greece, Guatemala, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Madeira, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, New Caledonia, New Mexico, New South Wales, Northern Provinces, Palestine, Peru, Portugal, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sinai, South Australia, Spain, St.Helena, Sudan, Tunisia, Turkey, Venezuela, Victoria, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Nicotiana glauca Graham appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1161], Brazil K001073270
    Jul 13, 1984 Collares, J.E.R. [202], Brazil K001073280
    Jun 26, 1983 Coradin, L. [6035], Brazil K001073283
    Jan 1, 1982 Mori, S.A. [14220], Brazil K001073281
    Jan 1, 1981 Staviski, M.N.R. [312], Brazil K001073269
    Jan 1, 1966 Eiten, G. [4926], Brazil K001073272
    Harley, R.M. [16286], Brazil K001073275
    Harley, R.M. [19178], Brazil K001073278
    Hinton, G.B. [5798], Mexico K000063508
    Hinton, G.B. [10060], Mexico K000063511
    Hinton, G.B. [11982], Mexico K000063512
    Hinton, G.B. [12499], Mexico K000063513
    Hinton, G.B., Mexico K000063514
    Coradin, L. [6365], Brazil K001073282
    Agra, M.F. [655], Brazil K001073271
    Pinto, G.C.P. [192/83], Brazil K001073279
    Pickersgill, B. [RU72-84], Brazil K001073277
    Pringle, C.G. [200], Mexico K000063503
    Bourgeau, M. [109], Mexico K000063504
    Gentry, H.S. [1318], Mexico K000063509
    Carter, A. [2119], Mexico K000063510
    Langlassé, E. [209], Mexico K000063507
    Wynd, F.L. [15], Mexico K000063505
    Martínez O., E. [418], Mexico K000063506
    Buysman, M. [s.n.], Brazil K001073273
    Bourke-Borrowes, D. [9], Brazil K001073274
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [8473], Brazil K001073276
    Taylor, L. [29] 78262.000

    First published in Edinburgh New Philos. J. 5: 175 (1828)

    Accepted by

    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Majumder, S.C. & Chakrabarty, T. (2009). A census of the genus Nicotiana L. (Solanaceae) in India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 545-548.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Moran, R. (1996). The flora of Guadalupe island, Mexico Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 19: 1-190.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fl. Cabo Verde, fam. 71: 62, t. 9 (2002). TAB. 2.
    • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 245 (1994).
    • Vahrmeijer, Pois. Pl. South. Africa: 126, 127 cum fig. (1981).
    • Fieldiana, Bot. 24, 10: 77, fig. 16 (1974).
    • Palmer & Pitman, Trees South. Africa 3: 1977 (1973).
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 309 (1972).
    • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 124: 8 (1969).
    • Verdcourt & Trump, Common Pois. Pl. E. Africa: 172 (1969).
    • M.D. Henderson & J.G. Anderson, Common Weeds S. Afr.: 270, fig. 134 (1966).
    • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 962, 985, 986 cum fig. 243 (1962).
    • Wild, Common Rhod. Weeds: fig. 85 (1955).
    • Chron. Bot. 16: 335, fig. 59 (1954).
    • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 26: 14 (1951).
    • Miller, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Bech. Prot.: 53 (1948).
    • Marloth, Fl. S. Africa 3, 1: 118, t. 31 (1932).
    • F.C. 4, 2: 120 (1904).
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 562 (1852).
    • Edinburgh New Philos. J. 5: 175 (1828)
    • Curtis, Bot. Mag. 55: t. 2837 (1828).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Majumder, S.C. & Chakrabarty, T. (2009). A census of the genus Nicotiana L. (Solanaceae) in India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 545-548.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
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    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0