1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Nicotiana L.
      1. Nicotiana rustica L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Peru.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: “in America, nunc in Europa, Herb. Linnaeus 245.3 (LINN!, lecto. designated by Goodspeed in The genus Nicotiana: 351 (1954) [without specimen citation]) & Deb in Journ. Econ. Tax. Bot. 1: 43 (1980). [See also Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 693 (2007)]
    Habit
    Annual herb to 1.5 m, sometimes becoming shrubby.
    Stem
    Stems erect, all parts conspicuously viscid-villous, with spreading simple glandular-headed hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves often fleshy, viscid, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate to cordiform, 8–16.5(–26) × 4–9(–22.5) cm, upper leaves often smaller, bases cordate to cuneate, apices obtuse to acute, villous but hairs sparser on upper surfaces; petioles 2–8 cm long
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences sparsely branched panicles; flowers opening by day; pedicels always erect, 4–5 mm long in flower, 5–10 mm long in fruit, densely glandular-villous
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate to cupulate, 6–10 × 4–8 mm, densely glandular-pilose externally, lobes unequal, broadly triangular, 1.5–4 × 1.3–4.5 mm, acute, enlarging in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow, greenish-yellow to whitish, broadly cylindrical to tubular below, ampliate becoming urceolate above, 1.4–2 × 0.5–1.1 cm diameter apically; tube inflated, 1.2–2 × ± 2 mm wide basally increasing to 8 mm apically below lobes where constricted, pilose externally, glabrous internally; lobes shallow, 1.5–2 × 5–6 mm, acute or slightly apiculate, spreading after anthesis
    Stamens
    Stamens unequal with fifth usually longer, occasionally shorter; filaments free for 7–10 mm, with fifth free for 6–7 mm; anthers yellow, cordiform, 1.5–2 × 1.2–1.8 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid to conical, 1.7–2.5 × 1.2–2 mm; disc crenulate, 1.5–2.5 mm diameter; style glabrous, 9–11 mm long; stigma green, 0.6–0.8 × 0.7–1.8 mm. Capsules dark brown, globose, 0.8–1.6 cm in diameter, glabrous, dehiscing by four glabrous smooth valves, subtended by accrescent glabrescent calyx
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, ovoid, obovoid or discoid, 0.7–1.3 × 0.6–0.9 mm
    Figures
    Fig 3/9 & 10, p 22
    Ecology
    Abandoned villages, shambas and cultivation sites, and on roadsides and rubble; (300–)1050–2350 m
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    This species is considered to be a cultigen of amphidiploid origin derived from N. paniculata L. and N. undulata Ruiz & Pavon. It was widely cultivated in the Andes, Mexico, southwestern and eastern USA and eastern Canada, often being known as wild or Aztec tobacco. Though it has become locally naturalised in many countries, it has been largely replaced by N. tabacum as the predominant source of tobacco for smoking, chewing and snuff. Deb (Journ. Econ. Tax. Bot, 1: 43 (1980)) described this species as a highly polymorphic cultigen apparently now unknown in the wild state; several varieties have been described, and many cultivars have been developed. It is smoked and cultivated for snuff in Uganda.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 K1 K4 T2 3 Range: Originally native to South America (Andes from Ecuador to Bolivia) and Mexico, widely grown for tobacco and snuff by villagers throughout Africa, Europe, Asia, the USA and Australia
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Pedicel
    Pedicels (2)3–5 mm long, slender, later somewhat thickened distally and 5–7 mm long, ± erect, glandular-pubescent
    Calyx
    Calyx 5–13 × 3.5–7 mm, poculiform to tubular, pubescent; lobes subequal or unequal, one much longer than the other 4, 1–5 × 1. 5–5 mm, ± broadly triangular or ovate-triangular, acute to obtuse, somewhat ciliate; in fruit somewhat enlarged to 12 × 12 mm and enclosing it or not Calyx 5–13 × 3.5–7 mm, poculiform to tubular, pubescent; lobes subequal or unequal, one much longer than the other 4, 1–5 × 1.5–5 mm, ± broadly triangular or ovate-triangular, acute to obtuse, somewhat ciliate; in fruit somewhat enlarged to 12 × 12 mm and enclosing it or not.
    Corolla
    Corolla greenish to yellow, 1. 2–2 cm long, salviform or tubular-campanulate; tube narrow to just above the calyx, then broadly dilated and urceolate, 4–6 mm wide distally, slightly villous to puberulent outside; limb 2–4 mm long, 3–7(10) mm across, shortly lobed or subentire at the margin; lobes 0.2–3 × 2–7 mm, triangular, rounded, obtuse-apiculate or sub-acute, erect or spreading Corolla greenish to yellow, 1.2–2 cm long, salviform or tubular-campanulate; tube narrow to just above the calyx, then broadly dilated and urceolate, 4–6 mm wide distally, slightly villous to puberulent outside; limb 2–4 mm long, 3–7(10) mm across, shortly lobed or subentire at the margin; lobes 0.2–3 × 2–7 mm, triangular, rounded, obtuse-apiculate or sub-acute, erect or spreading.
    Stamens
    Stamens unequal or subequal, one shorter than the other 4, included; filaments 0.6–1 cm long, attached at or sometimes near the base of the corolla dilation, white-hairy at or near the insertion, sigmoidly erect; anthers 1. 5–1. 8 × 1 mm Stamens unequal or subequal, one shorter than the other 4, included; filaments 0.6–1 cm long, attached at or sometimes near the base of the corolla dilation, white-hairy at or near the insertion, sigmoidly erect; anthers 1.5–1.8 × 1 mm.
    Disc
    Disk 0.2–0.5 mm high, somewhat thin, coalescent downwards and the rest adnate to the basal part of the ovary, obsoletely lobed Disk 0.2–0.5 mm high, somewhat thin, coalescent downwards and the rest adnate to the basal part of the ovary, obsoletely lobed.
    Ovary
    Ovary 2.5–3 × 1. 5–2 mm, conic or ovoid, glabrous.
    Style
    Style 0.7–1. 2 cm long, straight, glabrous
    Fruits
    Fruit ± erect, brownish, 7–11 × 7–11 mm, ± globose to ellipsoid-ovoid, without an apical beak, thin-walled, glabrous, splitting above into 2 valves by septicidal slits Fruit ± erect, brownish, 7–11 × 7–11 mm, ± globose to ellipsoid-ovoid, without an apical beak, thin-walled, glabrous, splitting above into 2 valves by septicidal slits.
    Seeds
    Seeds dull-brown, 0.7–1 × 0.6–0.9 mm, subglobose, ovoid or ellipsoid, angular, fluted-reticulate Seeds dull-brown, 0.7–1 × 0.6–0.9 mm, subglobose, ovoid or ellipsoid, angular, fluted-reticulate.
    Ecology
    Riverbeds, in old cultivated ground and waste places; up to c. 1000 m.
    Note
    Common name: “Turkish Tobacco” or “East Indian Tobacco”. Cultivated since antiquity for snuff and nowadays as a source of nicotine and medicinal products, and also as a garden ornamental; now locally naturalized. Chromosome number: 2n=48
    Distribution
    Zimbabwe Malawi ZAM N, ZIM N, MOZ T Native to South America, now extending from Mexico southwards to Chile and Argentina; widely distributed in warm and warm-temperate regions of both hemispheres, extending eastwards throughout the Mediterranean region to East India and southwards throughou Mozambique Zambia
    Habit
    Annual to short-lived perennial herb 0.2–0.9 m tall (elsewhere said to reach 1.5 m), sometimes somewhat bushy below, somewhat viscid-pubescent. Annual to short-lived perennial herb 0.2–0.9 m tall (elsewhere said to reach 1. 5 m), sometimes somewhat bushy below, somewhat viscid-pubescent
    Branches
    Branches herbaceous, ± terete. Branches herbaceous, ± terete
    Leaves
    Leaves often solitary, green or brownish, not glaucous, minutely puberulent to sparsely hairy and often viscid on both sides with long, multicellular hairs; petiole 0.5–4 cm long, not winged; lamina thickened, ± fleshy, 2.5–12.5 × 1–10.5 cm (elsewhere lower ones said to reach 30 cm in length), broadly ovate to elliptic, sometimes elliptic-lanceolate or suborbicular, base attenuate or cuneate to rounded, sometimes subcordate, equal-sided to unequal-sided, apex rounded or obtuse to acute, entire to rarely undulate. Leaves often solitary, green or brownish, not glaucous, minutely puberulent to sparsely hairy and often viscid on both sides with long, multicellular hairs; petiole 0.5–4 cm long, not winged; lamina thickened, ± fleshy, 2.5–12.5 × 1–10.5 cm (elsewhere lower ones said to reach 30 cm in length), broadly ovate to elliptic, sometimes elliptic-lanceolate or suborbicular, base attenuate or cuneate to rounded, sometimes subcordate, equal-sided to unequal-sided, apex rounded or obtuse to acute, entire to rarely undulate
    Flowers
    Flowers often many, erect or drooping, in narrow and compact or broad and loose, glandular-pubescent, paniculiform, terminal inflorescences 3–6 cm long; bracts and bracteoles small, linear to foliaceous, often ephemeral, or absent; pedicels (2)3–5 mm long, slender, later somewhat thickened distally and 5–7 mm long, ± erect, glandular-pubescent. Flowers often many, erect or drooping, in narrow and compact or broad and loose, glandular-pubescent, paniculiform, terminal inflorescences 3–6 cm long; bracts and bracteoles small, linear to foliaceous, often ephemeral, or absent.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2.5–3 × 1.5–2 mm, conic or ovoid, glabrous; style 0.7–1.2 cm long, straight, glabrous.
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=48.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1750 - 4000 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Subarbusto
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Herb, branched up to 4 ft. high
    Flowers
    Short greenish-yellow flowers villous outside.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Peru

    Introduced into:

    Albania, Algeria, Angola, Austria, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cameroon, Canary Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Corse, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Hungary, Illinois, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea, Krym, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mexico Southeast, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Netherlands, North European Russi, Pakistan, Qinghai, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Texas, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Nicotiana rustica L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Taylor, L. [62] Nicotiana rustica var. asiatica 78286.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 180 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Majumder, S.C. & Chakrabarty, T. (2009). A census of the genus Nicotiana L. (Solanaceae) in India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 545-548.
    • Kravchenko, A.V., Timofeeva, V.V., Rudkocskaya, O.A. & Fadeeva, M.A. (2008). Vascular plant species new and rare to Karelia Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 94: 776-788.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
    • Khan, M.S. & Mia, C. (2002). Flora of Bangladesh 53: 1-48. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Milgahid, A.M. (1989). Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 203
    • Goodspeed, The Genus Nicotiana 351 (1954)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 260
    • Sp. Pl. 180 (1753)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fl. Libya 62: 18, 20, fig. 5 (1978).
    • Biegel & Mavi, Rhod. Bot. Dict. Pl. Names: 208 (1972).
    • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 33, Suppl.: 883 (1963).
    • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 962, 987 (1962).
    • Chron. Bot. 16: 351, 353, fig. 66, 67 (1954).
    • Wild, S. Rhod. Bot. Dict.: 107 (1953).
    • Ficalho, Pl. Ut. Afr. Port., ed. 2: 231 (1947).
    • Bol. Soc. Estud. Colon. Moçambique 32: 88 (1936).
    • Marloth, Fl. S. Africa 3, 1: 117 (1932).
    • T. & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 397 (1909).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 260 (1906).
    • Akad. Wiss. Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Denkschr. 78: 438 (1905).
    • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 356 (1895).
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 563 (1852).
    • Sp. Pl.: 180 (1753).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Majumder, S.C. & Chakrabarty, T. (2009). A census of the genus Nicotiana L. (Solanaceae) in India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 545-548.
    • Kravchenko, A.V., Timofeeva, V.V., Rudkocskaya, O.A. & Fadeeva, M.A. (2008). Vascular plant species new and rare to Karelia Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 94: 776-788.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
    • Khan, M.S. & Mia, C. (2002). Flora of Bangladesh 53: 1-48. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Milgahid, A.M. (1989). Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Eth. 5: 106 (2006).
    • F.Z. 8(4): 16 (2005);
    • Fl. Egypt 6: 143 (1998);
    • Japan Tobacco Inc., Nicotiana Illustrated: 32 & 266 (1994);
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 189 (1992);
    • E.P.A. 2: 883 (1963);
    • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 327 (1963);
    • Chron. Bot. 16: 351 (1954);
    • Durand & Durand, Syll. Fl. Cong.: 397 (1909);
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 260 (1906)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 563 (1852);
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 180 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0