1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Nicotiana L.
      1. Nicotiana tabacum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Bolivia.

    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Robust annual up to 6 ft. high
    Flowers
    Long tubular white, pinkish, or sometimes cream flowers, viscid-glandular outside.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 2600 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Orinoquia, Valle del Cauca.
    Habit
    Hierba, liana
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: “in America, nota Europaeis ab 1560”, Herb. Linn. 245.1 (LINN!, lecto. designated by Setchell in Univ. Calif. Publ., Bot., 5: 6 (1912)) [See also Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 694 (2007)]
    Habit
    Annual or short-lived perennial herb to 3 m.
    Stem
    Stems sometimes basally woody, erect, sparsely branched; all parts conspicuously viscid-villous
    Leaves
    Leaves spatulate, lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, 8–50 × 2.8–21 cm, upper leaves smaller, bases decurrent, sessile or with short winged petiole up to 5 cm long, often auriculate, apices acute to narrowly acuminate, viscid-glandular on both surfaces
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal muchbranched panicles up to 25 cm long; flowers fragrant; pedicels densely viscid-pilose, 0.5–2 cm long in flower, up to 2.8 cm long in fruit, always erect; bracts linearlanceolate to ligulate, densely viscid-pubescent; calyx tubular to narrowly campanulate, 10–22 × 3–9 mm, viscid-pubescent externally, lobes unequal, narrowly triangular, 5–11 × 1.5–4 mm, acute to subulate-acuminate, enlarging in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla white or pink fading to white, often tube greenish and lobes pink to reddish, tubular below, ampliate becoming infundibuliform above, overall 3.6–5 × 1.1–2.8 cm diameter apically; tube 2.8–4.2 × 1.5–4 mm wide basally increasing to 5–9 mm below lobes, viscid-pilose externally, glabrous internally; lobes usually shallow broadly triangular, 1.5–5 × 2.3–10 mm, acuminate, spreading after anthesis
    Stamens
    Stamens unequal, the fifth often shorter; filaments two longer pairs free for 2.4–4.2 cm, shorter free for 2–3.5 cm; anthers 2–3(–3.6) × 1–2 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary elliptic to conical, ?dark brown, 5–8 × 2–5 mm; disc crenulate, 2–5 mm diameter; style 3–3.8 cm long; stigma 0.7–1.5 × 1–2 mm
    Fruits
    Capsules glabrous, brown, elliptic or ovoid, 1.3–2.2 × 0.8–1.5 cm, with apical beak, dehiscing by four glabrous smooth valves, wholly or partially covered by accrescent calyces
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, ovoid, globose, angular or discoid, 0.3–0.8(–1) × 0.2–0.5(–0.7) mm
    Figures
    Fig 3/1–8, p 22
    Ecology
    Cultivated, escaped and locally naturalised in woods and dry evergreen forest, bushland, on roadsides and along streams; 800–2600 m
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    Known throughout the world as the common tobacco, N. tabacum is widely cultivated for its stimulatory effect, with many cultivars also being grown as ornamentals for their varying flower colours and strong evening fragrances. It is a highly polymorphic species now composed of a large number of cultivar forms used in modern tobaccos. Many more synonyms of this species are given in Goodspeed (1954) and Mansfeld (2001), who both summarise its amphidiploid origin from N. sylvestris Speg. & Comes and N. tomentosiformis Goodspeed. Plants were cultivated and the leaves already used for chewing and smoking in Mexico, C America, Venezuela, Colombia and Guyana before the Americas were discovered. It is now the most important commercial tobacco species, widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics and some temperate zones, with the largest cultivation area encompassing China, India, Brazil, the former Soviet Union and the USA. Nicotine content is lower than in N. rustica; edible oils have recently been extracted from its seeds (Mansfeld, 2001). Among the many described varieties of this species are nine by Dunal (1852) and two in the Congo by Durand & Durand (1909), though none of these varietal names have been encountered on East African material. Williams (in U.O.P.Z., 1949) listed N. plumbaginifolia as occurring in Pemba and Zanzibar. The discriminatory characters given do not accurately reflect those given by Goodspeed (1954) for this species, with many being similar to those exhibited by N. alata. It is probable that the specimens were mis-identified. Said to be cultivated in Uganda in F.P.U.: 129, but no specimens have been seen.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U (see note); K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 T2 T3 T4 T5 Z Range: Probably originated in NW Argentina, naturalised throughout Africa and Indian Ocean islands
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type from America: Linnean specimen 245.1 (LINN, lectotype, IDC microfiche neg. 136.I.6!), fide D'Arcy, loc. cit. (1974).
    Habit
    Annual to short-lived perennial herb (0.5)0.6–1. 5 m tall (elsewhere said to reach 3 m), somewhat bushy below, somewhat viscid, shortly glandular-pubescent Annual to short-lived perennial herb (0.5)0.6–1.5 m tall (elsewhere said to reach 3 m), somewhat bushy below, somewhat viscid, shortly glandular-pubescent.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels (2)5–17 mm long, slender, later markedly thickened distally and 10–20 mm long, ± erect in fruit
    Ovary
    Ovary 3–7 × 2–3.5 mm, conic or ovoid, glabrous.
    Style
    Style 2.5–6 mm long, straight, glabrous
    Ecology
    Riversides and riverbeds, anthills, in old cultivated ground and waste places; up to 1460 m.
    Note
    Common name: “Tobacco” or “American Tobacco”. Cultivated since antiquity for the cured leaf which is smoked. Nowadays also cultivated as a source of nicotine and medicinal products, and as a garden ornamental; now locally naturalized. Chromosome number: 2n=48
    Distribution
    Throughout Africa from Libya and Egypt southwards to South Africa and from Canary and Cape Verde Islands eastwards to Aldabra and Comoro Islands. Zambia Native to tropical South America (probably from NW Argentina and Bolivia), now extending from the United States southwards throughout Central America and the Antilles to Chile and Argentina. Malawi ZAM N, ZIM C, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ GI, MOZ M Mozambique Zimbabwe
    Branches
    Branches herbaceous, ± terete. Branches herbaceous, ± terete
    Leaves
    Leaves green or brownish, not glaucous, puberulent to ± hairy and viscid on both sides; lamina of stem leaves basally narrowed into a winged petiole and expanded to resemble 2 leafy stipules, the petiole and its foliose wings decurrent on the stem; lower leaves often in a sparse rosette, up to 50 × 26 cm (elsewhere said to reach 150 cm in length), obovate or spathulate to elliptic or ovate, occasionally lanceolate, apex obtuse to acute; upper ones solitary, with lamina (3.5)5–21.5(39.5) × (1)1.5–8(17) cm, narrowly lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, occasionally obovate, apex long-acuminate to acute, entire or sometimes undulate. Leaves green or brownish, not glaucous, puberulent to ± hairy and viscid on both sides; lamina of stem leaves basally narrowed into a winged petiole and expanded to resemble 2 leafy stipules, the petiole and its foliose wings decurrent on the stem; lower leaves often in a sparse rosette, up to 50 × 26 cm (elsewhere said to reach 150 cm in length), obovate or spathulate to elliptic or ovate, occasionally lanceolate, apex obtuse to acute; upper ones solitary, with lamina (3.5)5–21. 5(39.5) × (1)1. 5–8(17) cm, narrowly lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, occasionally obovate, apex long-acuminate to acute, entire or sometimes undulate
    Flowers
    Flowers often many, erect to nodding, in broad, loose, flat, sometimes rounded at the top, several–much-branched, spreading, glandular-pubescent, paniculiform inflorescences up to 23 cm long, terminal and axillary; bracts foliaceous, clasping; bracteoles small, linear to foliaceous, often ephemeral; pedicels (2)5–17 mm long, slender, later markedly thickened distally and 10–20 mm long, ± erect in fruit. Flowers often many, erect to nodding, in broad, loose, flat, sometimes rounded at the top, several–much-branched, spreading, glandular-pubescent, paniculiform inflorescences up to 23 cm long, terminal and axillary; bracts foliaceous, clasping; bracteoles small, linear to foliaceous, often ephemeral.
    Calyx
    Calyx 8–25 × 3.5–8 mm, tubular or tubular-campanulate, viscid, glandular and shortly hairy; lobes unequal to equal, 2.5–13 × 1.5–5 mm, triangular to narrowly lanceolate or subulate-acicular, acute to long-acuminate, somewhat ciliate; in fruit somewhat enlarged to 25 × 15 mm and enclosing it or not. Calyx 8–25 × 3.5–8 mm, tubular or tubular-campanulate, viscid, glandular and shortly hairy; lobes unequal to equal, 2.5–13 × 1. 5–5 mm, triangular to narrowly lanceolate or subulate-acicular, acute to long-acuminate, somewhat ciliate; in fruit somewhat enlarged to 25 × 15 mm and enclosing it or not
    Corolla
    Corolla pale greenish to white, sometimes pink to red in upper half or pinkish only at the margins of the lobes, 3–8 cm long, tubular-infundibuliform to salviform; tube straight or scarcely curved, dilated in upper part, 3–9 mm wide distally, not or very slightly constricted under the limb, viscid, puberulent outside; limb 3–10(12) mm long, (8)10–25(30) mm across, lobed to subentire; lobes 3–10 × 3–10 mm, broadly triangular to ovate, acuminate to acute or obtuse-apiculate, ± spreading. Corolla pale greenish to white, sometimes pink to red in upper half or pinkish only at the margins of the lobes, 3–8 cm long, tubular-infundibuliform to salviform; tube straight or scarcely curved, dilated in upper part, 3–9 mm wide distally, not or very slightly constricted under the limb, viscid, puberulent outside; limb 3–10(12) mm long, (8)10–25(30) mm across, lobed to subentire; lobes 3–10 × 3–10 mm, broadly triangular to ovate, acuminate to acute or obtuse-apiculate, ± spreading
    Stamens
    Stamens unequal, one somewhat shorter than the other 4, usually included, sometimes slightly exserted; filaments (1)2–3.5 cm long, attached at or near the base of the corolla dilation, shortly hairy at the base and on the decurrent ridges, sometimes to near the apex, erect; anthers 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm. Stamens unequal, one somewhat shorter than the other 4, usually included, sometimes slightly exserted; filaments (1)2–3.5 cm long, attached at or near the base of the corolla dilation, shortly hairy at the base and on the decurrent ridges, sometimes to near the apex, erect; anthers 2–3 × 1–1. 5 mm
    Disc
    Disk to c. 0.8 mm high, thick, coalescent to the basal part of the ovary, deeply lobed. Disk to c.  0.8 mm high, thick, coalescent to the basal part of the ovary, deeply lobed
    Pistil
    Ovary 3–7 × 2–3.5 mm, conic or ovoid, glabrous; style 2.5–6 mm long, straight, glabrous.
    Fruits
    Fruit ± erect, brownish, 10–20 × 7–15 mm, narrowly ellipsoid, ovoid or globose, with a short apical beak, thin-walled, glabrous, splitting above into 2 valves by septicidal slits, each one later 2-fid. Fruit ± erect, brownish, 10–20 × 7–15 mm, narrowly ellipsoid, ovoid or globose, with a short apical beak, thin-walled, glabrous, splitting above into 2 valves by septicidal slits, each one later 2-fid
    Seeds
    Seeds brown, 0.7–0.8 × 0.4–0.6 mm, globose or ellipsoid, wrinkled. Seeds brown, 0.7–0.8 × 0.4–0.6 mm, globose or ellipsoid, wrinkled
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=48.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia

    Introduced into:

    Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Galápagos, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, India, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Romania, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South European Russi, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, St.Helena, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Nicotiana tabacum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [5284], Cameroon K000339797
    Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1622], Cameroon K000109665
    Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3443], Cameroon K000339153
    Harley, R.M. [21100], Brazil K001073258
    Harley, R.M. [21100], Brazil K001073259
    Hinton, G.B. [588], Mexico K000063494
    Hinton, G.B. [1669], Mexico K000063495
    Hinton, G.B. [4113], Mexico K000063496
    Hinton, G.B. [329], Mexico K000063497
    Hinton, G.B. [10139], Mexico K000063499
    Hinton, G.B. [5670], Mexico K000063502
    Trail, J.W.H. [598], Brazil K001073263
    Hawkes, J.G. [1523], Michoacán K000063500 holotype
    Heringer, E.P. [1540], Brazil K001073257
    Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001073260
    Pringle, C.G. [6745], Mexico K000063492
    Gardner, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001073262
    Palmer, E. [347], Mexico K000063493
    Burchell, W.J. [4708], Brazil K001073265
    Nuttall [s.n.], California K000759858
    Miers, J. [3129], Brazil K001073261
    Mwachala, G. [1186], Kenya K000449279
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2645], Nepal K001116732
    Weir, J. [431], Brazil K001073267
    González O., J. [217], Mexico K000063498
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [21812], Brazil K001073264
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001073266
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001073268
    Sello [s.n.], Brazil Nicotiana angustifolia K001073308
    Sello [s.n.], Brazil Nicotiana angustifolia K001073309
    Sellow [347], Brazil Nicotiana angustifolia K001073306
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [13083], Brazil Nicotiana angustifolia K001073305
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [6655], Brazil Nicotiana angustifolia K001073307
    Pringle, C.G. [6744], Mexico Nicotiana tabacum var. undulata K000063501

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 180 (1753)

    Accepted by

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    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
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    • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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    • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck archipelago for naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Renvoize, S.A. (1980). The Flora of Aldabra and neighbouring islands: 1-358. Crown, London.
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    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
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    • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
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    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
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