1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Physalis L.
      1. Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Hornem.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Erect, occasionally spreading or trailing, weak to ± robust, ± dichotomously branched, annual herb, (7)20–65 cm high (elsewhere said to reach 1. 3 m), yellowish-green or green, sometimes tinged purple, ± sparsely clothed with simple, ± appressed to patent, eglandular, occasionally short and minute, glandular hairs, also relatively long glandular hairs, furnished with ± sessile glands too
    Branches
    Branches subterete or angular, striate, drying ± sulcate, ± scabrous-pubescent or subglabrous Branches subterete or angular, striate, drying ± sulcate, ± scabrous-pubescent or subglabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually solitary; petiole (0.3)1–4(4.5) cm long, often slightly winged, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or ± fleshy, (1)2–11 × (0.5)1–5.5 cm, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, occasionally ovate-deltate, rhombic, elliptic or oblong, base obtuse, cuneate or attenuate, and often unequal-sided or dimidiate, decurrent into the petiole, apex acute, occasionally sub-acute or ± acuminate, sinuate-dentate or dentate, the teeth unequal, rather obtuse or rarely sub-acute, the sinuses ± deep, obtuse, glabrous except where decurrent on the petiole, sometimes with a few, often short, appressed hairs on the nerves and near the margins, occasionally scattered elsewhere Leaves usually solitary; petiole (0.3)1–4(4.5) cm long, often slightly winged, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or ± fleshy, (1)2–11 × (0.5)1–5.5 cm, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, occasionally ovate-deltate, rhombic, elliptic or oblong, base obtuse, cuneate or attenuate, and often unequal-sided or dimidiate, decurrent into the petiole, apex acute, occasionally sub-acute or ± acuminate, sinuate-dentate or dentate, the teeth unequal, rather obtuse or rarely sub-acute, the sinuses ± deep, obtuse, glabrous except where decurrent on the petiole, sometimes with a few, often short, appressed hairs on the nerves and near the margins, occasionally scattered elsewhere.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to pendulous. Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to pendulous; pedicel greenish or violaceous, (3)4–6(7) mm long, ± hairy and glandular, in fruit elongating to 8(10) mm.
    Pedicel
    Pedicel greenish or violaceous, (3)4–6(7) mm long, ± hairy and glandular, in fruit elongating to 8(10) mm
    Calyx
    Calyx (3.5)4–5.5(6) mm long, 2.5–3.5 mm across at the base of the lobes, campanulate, sub-angled or ribbed, truncate or invaginated at the base, puberulous mostly along the nerves, usually furnished also with ± sessile glands, more abundant towards the base, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, minute indumentum especially towards the apex and near the margins; lobes unequal or subequal, 0.8–2 × 0.6–1. 8 mm, ± triangular, obtuse or ± acute, occasionally bluntly acuminate; in fruit green or yellowish-green, sometimes purple towards the base or also with purple venation, 18–32 × (15)17–25 mm, ovoid or subglobose, ± terete or rather ribbed, sub-acute or bluntly sub-acuminate, half to three-quarters filled by the fruit, ± glabrescent, the lobes 2.4–4 × 2–3.5 mm Calyx (3.5)4–5.5(6) mm long, 2.5–3.5 mm across at the base of the lobes, campanulate, sub-angled or ribbed, truncate or invaginated at the base, puberulous mostly along the nerves, usually furnished also with ± sessile glands, more abundant towards the base, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, minute indumentum especially towards the apex and near the margins; lobes unequal or subequal, 0.8–2 × 0.6–1.8 mm, ± triangular, obtuse or ± acute, occasionally bluntly acuminate; in fruit green or yellowish-green, sometimes purple towards the base or also with purple venation, 18–32 × (15)17–25 mm, ovoid or subglobose, ± terete or rather ribbed, sub-acute or bluntly sub-acuminate, half to three-quarters filled by the fruit, ± glabrescent, the lobes 2.4–4 × 2–3.5 mm.
    Stamens
    Stamens usually exserted, subequal; filaments violaceous, (1)1. 2–2.5 mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, sometimes furnished with a few hairs; anthers violaceous or bluish-violet, (1)1. 2–1. 7(2) mm long, ovate-oblong to elliptic in outline, straight or slightly bent after anthesis Stamens usually exserted, subequal; filaments violaceous, (1)1.2–2.5 mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, sometimes furnished with a few hairs; anthers violaceous or bluish-violet, (1)1.2–1.7(2) mm long, ovate-oblong to elliptic in outline, straight or slightly bent after anthesis.
    Disc
    Disk 0.1–0.2 mm high, fleshy, glabrous Disk 0.1–0.2 mm high, fleshy, glabrous.
    Ovary
    Ovary 1. 2–2 × 0.8–1. 5 mm, ovoid or subglobose, glabrous.
    Style
    Style greenish-blue, (1)1. 5–2.5(3) mm long, filiform, straight or curved upwards
    Fruits
    Fruit green to yellowish, pale violet or violaceous, viscid, ± sessile on the invaginated base of the erect to pendulous calyx, 10–13 mm in diameter, subglobose Fruit green to yellowish, pale violet or violaceous, viscid, ± sessile on the invaginated base of the erect to pendulous calyx, 10–13 mm in diameter, subglobose.
    Note
    Chromosome number: 2n=24 Common name: “Wild Cape Gooseberry”.
    Ecology
    Cleared bushland, seasonally flooded grassland and cultivated ground, on roadsides and anthills, sometimes as a weed of cultivation; up to 1400 m.
    Distribution
    Botswana. Zimbabwe BOT SE, ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S Origin unknown, naturalized in Portugal and probably also in Holland and Australia. In Africa recorded also from Dem. Rep. Congo. Zambia
    Habit
    Erect, occasionally spreading or trailing, weak to ± robust, ± dichotomously branched, annual herb, (7)20–65 cm high (elsewhere said to reach 1.3 m), yellowish-green or green, sometimes tinged purple, ± sparsely clothed with simple, ± appressed to patent, eglandular, occasionally short and minute, glandular hairs, also relatively long glandular hairs, furnished with ± sessile glands too.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow or greenish-yellow, blotched with 5 dark brownish violet or purplish markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, sometimes spreading downwards and somewhat along the nerves upwards, 4–7(8) mm long, rotate; tube subglabrous, furnished with few ± sessile glands, on the inside with felted indumentum near the insertion of the stamens and with a ring of hyaline hairs at the mouth; limb (5)6–9 mm across, shortly 5-lobed, erect to widely spreading, sometimes reflexed when fully expanded, on the outside with ± appressed, short hairs and also sessile glands often along the nerves, on the median region of each lobe on the part not folded in bud, glabrous inside except for the lobes with minute hairs towards the apex, slightly ciliate. Corolla yellow or greenish-yellow, blotched with 5 dark brownish violet or purplish markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, sometimes spreading downwards and somewhat along the nerves upwards, 4–7(8) mm long, rotate; tube subglabrous, furnished with few ± sessile glands, on the inside with felted indumentum near the insertion of the stamens and with a ring of hyaline hairs at the mouth; limb (5)6–9 mm across, shortly 5-lobed, erect to widely spreading, sometimes reflexed when fully expanded, on the outside with ± appressed, short hairs and also sessile glands often along the nerves, on the median region of each lobe on the part not folded in bud, glabrous inside except for the lobes with minute hairs towards the apex, slightly ciliate
    Pistil
    Ovary 1.2–2 × 0.8–1.5 mm, ovoid or subglobose, glabrous; style greenish-blue, (1)1.5–2.5(3) mm long, filiform, straight or curved upwards.
    Seeds
    Seeds whitish to yellowish, 1.7–2.2 × 1.5–1.7 mm, elliptic or ± orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveolate. Seeds whitish to yellowish, 1. 7–2.2 × 1. 5–1. 7 mm, elliptic or ± orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveolate
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest

    Introduced into:

    Botswana, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece, India, New Mexico, New South Wales, Norfolk Is., Portugal, Primorye, Queensland, Spain, Uzbekistan, West Siberia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Hornem. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Hort. Bot. Hafn., Suppl.: 26 (1819)

    Accepted by

    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Sheremetova, S.A., Ebel, A.L. & Buko, T.E. (2011). Supplement to the flora of Kemerovo region since 2001 till 2010 Turczaninowia 14(1): 65-74.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

    Not accepted by

    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève. [Cited as Physalis philadelphica.]

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 244 (1994).
    • Bol. Soc. Brot., Sér. 2, 44: 344, 357, t. 2, t. 4–8, t. 10 fig. A–L (1970).
    • Garcia de Orta 17: 286 quadro I (1969)
    • ex Hornem., Hort. Bot. Hafn., Suppl.: 26 (1819).
    • ex A. DC., Cat. Pl. Hort. Bot. Monsp.: 50 (1813) as “ixocarpos” nom. nud.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Sheremetova, S.A., Ebel, A.L. & Buko, T.E. (2011). Supplement to the flora of Kemerovo region since 2001 till 2010 Turczaninowia 14(1): 65-74.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Barkalov, V.Y. (ed.) (1991). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 5: 1-388. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/