1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Physalis L.
      1. Physalis lagascae Roem. & Schult.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Venezuela and Argentina (Jujuy), Cuba.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Erect to decumbent or prostrate, weak or occasionally ± robust, ± dichotomously much branched, annual herb, (0.05)0.1–1 m high (elsewhere said to reach 1.5 m), often tinged purple, ± clothed all over with simple, stout, often multicellular, white or hyaline, ± spreading, usually eglandular hairs 1–4 mm long, and also rigid, curved at the tip, appressed to spreading, often minute, hairs, furnished with ± sessile glands too
    Pedicel
    Pedicel 2–5(9) mm long, villous or puberulous, occasionally subglabrous, in fruit elongated to 9(10) mm
    Ovary
    Ovary 0.8–0.9 × 0.6–0.7 mm, ellipsoid or ± globose, glabrous.
    Style
    Style 2–3 mm long, filiform, ± curved upwards
    Note
    The specimens Torre et al. in Torre 17705, 18035 and 19042, from the Tete Province of Mozambique have relatively large leaves, with petioles up to 8 cm long and laminas up to 10.5 × 7.5 cm. The specimen Flanagan 3305, from Zimbabwe, referred to by Wild, loc. cit. (1953) as P. minima, but not seen by me, is probably this species. Chromosome number: 2n=24
    Distribution
    Mozambique Zambia Zimbabwe Malawi ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM E, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ Z, MOZ T, MOZ MS Native to tropical America (Mexico and Antilles), now extending northwards to the United States and southwards throughout Central America and the Caribbean to Bolivia.
    Habit
    Erect to decumbent or prostrate, weak or occasionally ± robust, ± dichotomously much branched, annual herb, (0.05)0.1–1 m high (elsewhere said to reach 1.5 m), often tinged purple, ± clothed all over with simple, stout, often multicellular, white or hyaline, ± spreading, usually eglandular hairs 1–4 mm long, and also rigid, curved at the tip, appressed to spreading, often minute, hairs, furnished with ± sessile glands too.
    Branches
    Branches angular or angular-ribbed, striate, drying ± sulcate, sparingly villous, with ± long hairs mainly on the emergent parts and also short and minute hairs somewhat localized near the nodes, occasionally subglabrous. Branches angular or angular-ribbed, striate, drying ± sulcate, sparingly villous, with ± long hairs mainly on the emergent parts and also short and minute hairs somewhat localized near the nodes, occasionally subglabrous
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or geminate; petiole 0.5–4.5(8) cm long, often slightly winged, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or ± fleshy, 1.5–7.5(10.5) × 0.8–4.5(7.5) cm, ovate to lanceolate, sometimes rhombic, ovate-oblong, elliptic or oblanceolate, base shortly cuneate or attenuate, sometimes obtuse, rounded, truncate or subcordate, and often oblique or unequal-sided, sometimes ± decurrent into the petiole, apex acuminate, acute or obtuse, entire to somewhat coarsely sinuate-dentate, rarely dentate, the teeth unequal, ± triangular, obtuse, the sinuses rounded, both surfaces ± sparsely pilose or subglabrous but pubescent along the nerves and near the margins; minor leaves with lamina 0.5–0.7 × 0.3–0.4 cm, elliptic, sometimes present. Leaves solitary or geminate; petiole 0.5–4.5(8) cm long, often slightly winged, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or ± fleshy, 1. 5–7.5(10.5) × 0.8–4.5(7.5) cm, ovate to lanceolate, sometimes rhombic, ovate-oblong, elliptic or oblanceolate, base shortly cuneate or attenuate, sometimes obtuse, rounded, truncate or subcordate, and often oblique or unequal-sided, sometimes ± decurrent into the petiole, apex acuminate, acute or obtuse, entire to somewhat coarsely sinuate-dentate, rarely dentate, the teeth unequal, ± triangular, obtuse, the sinuses rounded, both surfaces ± sparsely pilose or subglabrous but pubescent along the nerves and near the margins; minor leaves with lamina 0.5–0.7 × 0.3–0.4 cm, elliptic, sometimes present
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, inserted by the side of the petiole-base appearing axillary, erect to pendulous; pedicel 2–5(9) mm long, villous or puberulous, occasionally subglabrous, in fruit elongated to 9(10) mm. Flowers solitary, inserted by the side of the petiole-base appearing axillary, erect to pendulous.
    Calyx
    Calyx (1.5)2–3.5(4) mm long, 1.5–2.5(3) mm across at the base of the lobes, campanulate, sub-angled-ribbed, truncate or invaginated at the base, with scattered, stout, white or hyaline, ± spreading, long hairs, or puberulous especially along the ribs, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, minute indumentum towards the apex, near the margins and sometimes also along the midribs; lobes subequal, (0.3)0.5–1.2(1.5) × 0.7–1(1.2) mm, ± deltate or ovate-triangular to triangular-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, sometimes sub-acuminate, rarely sub-truncate; in fruit greenish, usually drying purple-veined, (10)12–20(23) × (8)10–15(20) mm, globose to ± ovoid, 10-angled-ribbed or 10-ribbed, slightly obtuse or apiculate at the summit, half to almost filled by the fruit, subglabrous to pilose, mostly with long hairs especially along the ribs and nerves, often the ribs with widely spaced small teeth or enations derived from the hair bases, the lobes (0.5)1–2.5(3) × 1–2 mm. Calyx (1. 5)2–3.5(4) mm long, 1. 5–2.5(3) mm across at the base of the lobes, campanulate, sub-angled-ribbed, truncate or invaginated at the base, with scattered, stout, white or hyaline, ± spreading, long hairs, or puberulous especially along the ribs, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense, minute indumentum towards the apex, near the margins and sometimes also along the midribs; lobes subequal, (0.3)0.5–1. 2(1. 5) × 0.7–1(1. 2) mm, ± deltate or ovate-triangular to triangular-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, sometimes sub-acuminate, rarely sub-truncate; in fruit greenish, usually drying purple-veined, (10)12–20(23) × (8)10–15(20) mm, globose to ± ovoid, 10-angled-ribbed or 10-ribbed, slightly obtuse or apiculate at the summit, half to almost filled by the fruit, subglabrous to pilose, mostly with long hairs especially along the ribs and nerves, often the ribs with widely spaced small teeth or enations derived from the hair bases, the lobes (0.5)1–2.5(3) × 1–2 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla greenish-yellow or yellow to white or greenish-cream, slightly purplish marked or apparently unmarked, more rarely blotched with 5 ± dark purple to brown markings not strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, (3)4–5(7) mm long, tubular-campanulate, often narrowly so; tube glabrous, on the inside with a few hyaline hairs from the insertion of the stamens upwards; limb (2)3–6 mm across, shortly 5-lobed, erect or spreading, rarely reflexed when fully expanded, glabrous or puberulous on the parts not folded in bud, glabrous inside, ciliate. Corolla greenish-yellow or yellow to white or greenish-cream, slightly purplish marked or apparently unmarked, more rarely blotched with 5 ± dark purple to brown markings not strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, (3)4–5(7) mm long, tubular-campanulate, often narrowly so; tube glabrous, on the inside with a few hyaline hairs from the insertion of the stamens upwards; limb (2)3–6 mm across, shortly 5-lobed, erect or spreading, rarely reflexed when fully expanded, glabrous or puberulous on the parts not folded in bud, glabrous inside, ciliate
    Stamens
    Stamens included or slightly exserted, equal or subequal; filaments (1)1.5–3(3.5) mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, furnished with few hairs; anthers yellowish, sometimes blue-margined, 0.8–1 mm long, ± oblong or elliptic in outline, straight after anthesis. Stamens included or slightly exserted, equal or subequal; filaments (1)1. 5–3(3.5) mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, furnished with few hairs; anthers yellowish, sometimes blue-margined, 0.8–1 mm long, ± oblong or elliptic in outline, straight after anthesis
    Disc
    Disk 0.2–0.3 mm high, fleshy, glabrous. Disk 0.2–0.3 mm high, fleshy, glabrous
    Pistil
    Ovary 0.8–0.9 × 0.6–0.7 mm, ellipsoid or ± globose, glabrous; style 2–3 mm long, filiform, ± curved upwards.
    Fruits
    Fruit greenish-yellow or pale yellow, occasionally yellow, subsessile or with a gynobase up to 1 mm long on the invaginated base of the erect to pendulous calyx, (5)6–10 mm in diameter, ± globose or slightly ovoid, viscid. Fruit greenish-yellow or pale yellow, occasionally yellow, subsessile or with a gynobase up to 1 mm long on the invaginated base of the erect to pendulous calyx, (5)6–10 mm in diameter, ± globose or slightly ovoid, viscid
    Seeds
    Seeds light brown or yellowish, (1.5)1.8–2 × (1.5)1.6–1.8(2) mm, ovate to orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveolate. Seeds light brown or yellowish, (1. 5)1. 8–2 × (1. 5)1. 6–1. 8(2) mm, ovate to orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveolate
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: based on P. parviflora sensu Lagasca, Gen. Sp. Nov. Diagn.: 11, n. 147 (1816); type not cited
    Habit
    Annual herb usually < 0.5 m high, occasionally taller, erect, decumbent, prostrate or creeping.
    Stem
    Main stems sparsely to densely branched, green or purple-tinged, pilose with simple hairs (in our area)
    Leaves
    Leaves light to dark green, 1.7–4.5(–6) × 1–3(–4.2) cm, smaller above, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, bases cuneate, often oblique, sometimes decurrent, margins entire to sinuate, rarely sinuate-dentate, apices acute, sparsely to moderately pilose (in our area), hairs usually short and appressed, denser on veins, midribs and lower surfaces; petioles 0.5–3.2 cm, pubescence as stems
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, small, in leaf or branch axils; pedicels 1.5–4 mm long, erect in flower, pubescent, 3–7 mm long and erect to recurved in fruit. Calyx cupulate, 1.7–3(–4) mm long with five broadly triangular acute lobes 0.5–1 × 0.5–1.5 mm with ciliate margins, often with long spreading white hairs, enlarged and persistent in fruit with connivent lobes 0.8–1.8 × 0.8–2 mm. Corolla white, cream, pale yellow or green, tubular/campanulate, 2.9–5 × 3–4 mm diameter, shortly pubescent externally, margin ciliate, undulating or with five broadly triangular obtuse lobes 0.2–1 × 0.7–1.1 mm
    Stamens
    Stamens often visible in corolla throat; filaments free for 1.5–2.5(–3) mm; anthers pale yellow, ovoid to oblong, bilobed, 0.5–1.3 × 0.3–0.5 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary brownish, ovoid, 0.7–1.1 × 0.5–1.1 mm, smooth, glabrous; disc 0.7–1.5 mm diameter; style often exserted, 2–2.5 mm long; stigma 0.2–0.3 × 0.2–0.5 mm
    Fruits
    Fruit pale green to yellow, globose, rarely ovoid, 5–10 mm diameter, smooth, subsessile or on inverted gynobase (–0.75 mm) of enlarged and inflated reticulately-veined pale green globose calyx, 0.8–1.8 × 0.7–2 cm, the mouth closed by connivent calyx lobes, veins often clothed with long spreading hairs
    Seeds
    Seeds yellow, orbicular, 1.2–1.8 × 1.1–1.7 mm, compressed
    Figures
    Fig 15/1–4, p 72
    Ecology
    Weed of cultivation, plantations and abandoned areas, also on river-banks, disturbed sites, edges of paddy-fields, grass patches in floodplains; common to local; 40–1850 m
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    This taxon is widely known as P. minima L. – an appropriate epithet in view of its characteristic small leaves, flowers, berries and fruiting calyces. However, typification of this Linnaean species is extremely complex with the lectotype of P. minima (Hort. Cliff. n. 62, Physalis 5 (BM!)) being conspecific with P. angulata, with which it has been synonymised. Moreover, most of the descriptions and plates on which Linnaeus based this species (e.g. Herm. Lugdb.: 569, t. 571; and Rheede Mal. 10, t. 140, f. 71) also refer to P. angulata rather than the small-flowered prostrate plant described here. Numerous authors have discussed the difficulties of correctly naming and typifying this taxon ( cf. Fernandes in Garcia de Orta, 17: 282 (1969)), and some of the synonyms cited in the literature for P. minima belong to P. angulata. Though the name P. lagascae has been used here in line with various recent generic treatments, there are no known type specimens and the protologue does not entirely reflect the morphology characterised by East African specimens. Roemer & Schultes (1819) described the branches of their taxon as villous, repeating the phrase used by Opiz (1817) when describing P. parviflora on which P. lagascae was based. While the majority of East African specimens are sparsely to moderately pilose, there are a number of specimens from Kenya and Tanzania which are densely villous even to the naked eye. In other features these specimens are very similar to the species described above and they have been included under P. lagascae. Indeed, hairy and glabrescent varieties of this species have been recognised as var. lagascae and var. glabrescens O.E. Schulz respectively in Central America ( cf. Schulz, 1909; Waterfall, 1967). These villous specimens could, however, belong to the taxon described as P. pubescens L. in Flora Zambesiaca (apparently based on a single specimen from Zambia). It is possible that following more detailed work on its pubescence variation, a name change might become necessary for P. lagascae. The fruits of this species are edible, and the boiled leaves are eaten as a vegetable in U 1, K 2 and Ethiopia; it is considered to be a medicinal plant throughout its range.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K2 K4 K5 K ?7; T1 T2 T3 T4 T ?5, T6 T7 Range: Probably native to Mexico but now a cosmopolitan weed throughout tropical and subtropical regions
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 438 m.; Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba, subarbusto
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Botswana, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Oman, Philippines, Rwanda, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Uganda, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Physalis lagascae Roem. & Schult. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [8906], Cameroon K000109667
    Hinton, G.B. [2717], Mexico K000042259
    Hinton, G.B. [5821], Mexico K000042261
    Hinton, G.B. [5204], Mexico K000042262
    Hinton, G.B. [8418], Mexico K000042264
    Hinton, G.B. [8493], Mexico K000042265
    Hinton, G.B. [5982], Mexico K000042266
    Pringle, C.G. [8447], Mexico K000042258
    Pringle, C.G. [11055], Mexico K000042260
    Langlassé, E. [393], Mexico K000042263

    First published in Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 4: 679 (1819)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fl. Cabo Verde, fam. 71: 40, t. 5 (2002). TAB. 10.
    • Garcia de Orta 17: 282 (1969).
    • Rhodora 69: 220 (1967).
    • Syst. Veg. 4: 679 (1819).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
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    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0