1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Physalis L.
      1. Physalis philadelphica Lam.

        This species is accepted, and is native to Southern America and Northern America..

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Erect, weak to sometimes ± robust, ± dichotomously branched, annual (or short-lived perennial) herb, said to reach 1. 3 m high, usually less in the Flora Zambesiaca area, ± sparsely clothed with simple, appressed to patent, eglandular and sometimes short and minute glandular hairs, more abundant especially on young parts, and occasionally also relatively long glandular hairs, furnished with ± sessile glands too
    Branches
    Branches subterete or angular, drying ± sulcate, with mostly short and minute, ± appressed and spreading hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, sometimes tinged violet; petiole (0.2)1–4.5(5.5) cm long, slightly winged, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous, (1)2–6.5 × (0.5)1–3.5 cm, ovate to lanceolate, occasionally elliptic or rhombic, base obtuse, cuneate or attenuate, and often oblique to dimidiate, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex acute or ± acuminate, repand to coarsely sinuate-dentate or rather dentate, the teeth often unequal, ± triangular, obtuse, the sinuses rounded, occasionally entire, sparsely ciliate but otherwise ± glabrous (or elsewhere sparsely pubescent)
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to pendulous.
    Pedicel
    Pedicel violaceous, 2–5 mm long, hairy and glandular, in fruit elongated to 6(8) mm
    Calyx
    Calyx (4)5–7(8) mm long, 4–6(7) mm across at the base of the lobes, broadly campanulate, sub-angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, sparsely pubescent with multicellular, spreading, sometimes glandular hairs, mostly on the angles, or subglabrous, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense minute indumentum sometimes only near the apex and the margins; lobes unequal, 1. 5–3.5 × 2–4 mm, ± triangular or ovate, obtuse or ± acute, sometimes sub-acuminate; in fruit green or yellowish-green, often with purple venation, 25–35 × 20–30 mm, ovoid, ± terete or slightly 5(or 10)-angled and somewhat 10-ribbed, sub-acute or bluntly sub-acuminate, often nearly or well-filled by the fruit, the lobes 4–7 × 2.5–5 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow, blotched with 5 dark violaceous or brownish markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, continued by veins along the lobes, 10–15 mm long, ± rotate or broadly campanulate; tube subglabrous, furnished with ± sessile glands, on the inside with dense felted indumentum especially near the insertion of the stamens, continued by shorter and less dense hairs to near the mouth; limb 10–20 mm across, 5-lobed to subentire, erect to widely spreading, sometimes reflexed when fully expanded, on the outside with sparse, short hairs and ± sessile glands, ± glabrous inside, ciliate
    Stamens
    Stamens usually exserted, unequal; filaments violaceous, 3.5–5 mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, sometimes furnished with a few hairs; anthers purplish, violaceous to blue, or yellowish with bluish border, 2.5–4 mm long, ovate-oblong to elliptic in outline, usually curved or ± twisted after anthesis
    Disc
    Disk 0.1 mm high, fleshy, glabrous
    Ovary
    Ovary 1. 5–1. 8 × 1. 4–1. 7 mm, ovoid or ± globose, glabrous.
    Style
    Style 7–8 mm long, filiform, straight or curved upwards
    Fruits
    Fruit green to dark violet or purple, sometimes yellow or yellowish, sessile on the invaginated base of the drooping to pendulous calyx, c.  15 mm (elsewhere said to reach 60 mm) diameter, ± globose, oily or viscid
    Seeds
    Seeds yellowish, 2.2–2.6 × 1. 8–2.1 mm, elliptic or ± orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate
    Note
    Chromosome number: 2n=24 Common name: “Japanese Gooseberry” or “Tomatillo”. Cultivated mainly for its edible fruits and occurring as an escape or as a weed of cultivation; sometimes locally naturalized in Europe and Africa.
    Distribution
    ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM E, ZIM C Native to North America (United States and Mexico), now extending northwards to Canada and southwards throughout Central America and the Antilles to South America (Galapagos). Zambia Zimbabwe
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: cultivated “Jardin du Roi “, France, originally from North America, 1784 (P-LAM, holo.; fiche LM 471/5!)
    Habit
    Annual herb < 0.5 m high.
    Stem
    Stems brownish-green or purple-tinged, sometimes woody and/or angular, sparsely to moderately pilose with simple hairs, glabrescent
    Leaves
    Leaves membranaceous, green to greyish-green, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate to deltate, 2.8–5.6(–10) × 1.2–3.2(–5.2) cm, bases cuneate, often oblique, sometimes decurrent, margins sinuate-dentate with 2–9 acute antrorse lobes, rarely sinuate, apices acute, pilose (sometimes denser on veins, midribs and lower surfaces) to glabrous, stipulate; petioles (0.6–)1.5–4.5 cm
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary; pedicels erect in flower and recurved in fruit, 3–8 mm long, sparsely pilose, 8–11 mm long
    Calyx
    Calyx cupulate/campanulate, 3–4(?–7) mm long with five broadly triangular acute lobes 1.5–3 × 1.6–2.4(–4) mm with ciliate margins, sparsely pilose to glabrous externally, enlarged and persistent in fruit with connivent lobes 4–5 × 5–6 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow to orange-yellow with pale or sepia basal spots or blotches and an internal ring of dense long eglandular hairs exposed by recurvature of throat, broadly campanulate, 0.8–1.5 cm long and 1.2–1.8 cm diameter, shortly pubescent externally, margin undulating, ciliate and entire or with 5 short broadly triangular obtuse lobes ± 3 × 4 mm
    Stamens
    Stamens often unequal, exserted; filaments free for 3–5 mm; anthers purple and yellow, twisted and/or curved at maturity, oblong, bilobed, 2.8–4.4 × 0.9–1 mm, always exserted, maturing at different times and of different lengths within the same flower
    Ovary
    Ovary pale green to brownish, ovoid, 1–2 × 1–2 mm, smooth, glabrous; style exserted up to 2.5 mm, 5.5–9 mm long; stigma 0.3–0.8 mm diameter
    Fruits
    Fruit maturing to ?purple, globose, 0.9–1.1(–1.4) cm diameter, smooth, sessile on invaginated pedicel base, enclosed by enlarged and inflated reticulatelyveined globose calyx which 2.2–2.5 cm diameter, the mouth closed by connivent lobes
    Seeds
    Seeds 9–11(–16) per berry, yellow to orange, orbicular, 2.1–2.5 × 1.7–2.2 mm, compressed
    Figures
    Fig 15/5–11, p 72
    Ecology
    Weed of gardens, fields and cultivation, especially of crops; occasional to common; 1700–2000 m
    Conservation
    Widespread; least concern (LC)
    Note
    This species is commonly known as the tomate, miltomate or husk tomato; it has been in cultivation since pre-Colombian times and is still widely cultivated as a fruit, though it is rarely eaten raw. Wild and domesticated varieties have been recognised (viz. var. philadelphica and var. domestica – cf. Hudson, 1986) with morphological intermediates being common and the species exhibiting the wide variability characteristic of domesticated plants. The diagnostic features given by Agnew (1994) for P. ixocarpa suggest that the plants described belong to P. philadelphica.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: K3 K4 Range: Native to North America, sporadic weed in Sudan, Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Arizona, Belize, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Panamá, Vermont

    Introduced into:

    Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Illinois, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Manchuria, Morocco, New South Wales, Portugal, Queensland, Spain, Sudan, Turkey, Ukraine, Victoria, Western Australia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Physalis philadelphica Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hinton, G.B. [1613], Mexico K000042239
    Hinton, G.B. [4034], Mexico K000042240
    Hinton, G.B. [11449], Mexico K000042249
    Balls, E.K. [B4902], Mexico K000042250
    Pringle, C.G. [6319], Mexico K000042233
    Pringle, C.G. [8446], Mexico K000042241
    Pringle, C.G. [6263], Mexico K000042251
    Pringle, C.G. [9309], Mexico K000042234
    Palmer, E. [946], Mexico K000042235
    Palmer, E. [2], Mexico K000042238
    Palmer, E. [288], Mexico K000042248
    Parry, C.C. [640], Mexico K000042245
    Parry, C.C. [646], Mexico K000042246
    Bourgeau, M. [1754], Mexico K000042243
    Bourgeau, M. [3694], Mexico K000042244
    Gentry, H.S. [2633], Mexico K000042237
    Gentry, H.S. [1964], Mexico K000042242
    Schaffner, J.G. [701], Mexico K000042247
    Anthony, A.W. [411], Mexico K000042236
    Botteri, M. [842], Mexico K000042388

    First published in Encycl. 2: 101 (1786)

    Accepted by

    • Vladimirov, V. & al. (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 34 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 413-444.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
    • Bol. Soc. Brot., Sér. 2, 44: 363–365, t. 9 (1970).
    • Garcia de Orta 17: 286 quadro I (1969)
    • Rhodora 69: 213 (1967) pro parte excl. syn. P. ixocarpa et P. aequata.
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 450 (1852).
    • Encycl. Méth. Bot. 2, 1: 101 (1786).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Verloove, F. (2018-coninuously updated). Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium http://alienplantsbelgium.be.
    • Vladimirov, V. & al. (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 34 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 413-444.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F.Z. 8(4): 48 (2005).
    • Fl. Egypt 6: 72 (1998)
    • Solanaceae Biol. & Syst.: 416 (1986)
    • Rhodora 69: 213 (1967) pro parte
    • F.P.U.: 55 (1962)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 450 (1852)
    • Encycl. Méth. Bot. 2: 101 (1786)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0