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This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Central America, Cuba to Haiti.
Physalis philadelphica

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General
Erect, weak to sometimes ± robust, ± dichotomously branched, annual (or short-lived perennial) herb, said to reach 1. 3 m high, usually less in the Flora Zambesiaca area, ± sparsely clothed with simple, appressed to patent, eglandular and sometimes short and minute glandular hairs, more abundant especially on young parts, and occasionally also relatively long glandular hairs, furnished with ± sessile glands too
Morphology Branches
Branches subterete or angular, drying ± sulcate, with mostly short and minute, ± appressed and spreading hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary, sometimes tinged violet; petiole (0.2)1–4.5(5.5) cm long, slightly winged, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous, (1)2–6.5 × (0.5)1–3.5 cm, ovate to lanceolate, occasionally elliptic or rhombic, base obtuse, cuneate or attenuate, and often oblique to dimidiate, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex acute or ± acuminate, repand to coarsely sinuate-dentate or rather dentate, the teeth often unequal, ± triangular, obtuse, the sinuses rounded, occasionally entire, sparsely ciliate but otherwise ± glabrous (or elsewhere sparsely pubescent)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary, erect to pendulous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel violaceous, 2–5 mm long, hairy and glandular, in fruit elongated to 6(8) mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx (4)5–7(8) mm long, 4–6(7) mm across at the base of the lobes, broadly campanulate, sub-angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, sparsely pubescent with multicellular, spreading, sometimes glandular hairs, mostly on the angles, or subglabrous, on the inside glabrous except for the lobes with ± dense minute indumentum sometimes only near the apex and the margins; lobes unequal, 1. 5–3.5 × 2–4 mm, ± triangular or ovate, obtuse or ± acute, sometimes sub-acuminate; in fruit green or yellowish-green, often with purple venation, 25–35 × 20–30 mm, ovoid, ± terete or slightly 5(or 10)-angled and somewhat 10-ribbed, sub-acute or bluntly sub-acuminate, often nearly or well-filled by the fruit, the lobes 4–7 × 2.5–5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, blotched with 5 dark violaceous or brownish markings strongly contrasting with the surrounding limb, continued by veins along the lobes, 10–15 mm long, ± rotate or broadly campanulate; tube subglabrous, furnished with ± sessile glands, on the inside with dense felted indumentum especially near the insertion of the stamens, continued by shorter and less dense hairs to near the mouth; limb 10–20 mm across, 5-lobed to subentire, erect to widely spreading, sometimes reflexed when fully expanded, on the outside with sparse, short hairs and ± sessile glands, ± glabrous inside, ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually exserted, unequal; filaments violaceous, 3.5–5 mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base, sometimes furnished with a few hairs; anthers purplish, violaceous to blue, or yellowish with bluish border, 2.5–4 mm long, ovate-oblong to elliptic in outline, usually curved or ± twisted after anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk 0.1 mm high, fleshy, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1. 5–1. 8 × 1. 4–1. 7 mm, ovoid or ± globose, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 7–8 mm long, filiform, straight or curved upwards
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit green to dark violet or purple, sometimes yellow or yellowish, sessile on the invaginated base of the drooping to pendulous calyx, c.  15 mm (elsewhere said to reach 60 mm) diameter, ± globose, oily or viscid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds yellowish, 2.2–2.6 × 1. 8–2.1 mm, elliptic or ± orbicular in outline, sometimes reniform, reticulate-foveate
Note
Chromosome number: 2n=24 Common name: “Japanese Gooseberry” or “Tomatillo”. Cultivated mainly for its edible fruits and occurring as an escape or as a weed of cultivation; sometimes locally naturalized in Europe and Africa.
Distribution
ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM E, ZIM C Native to North America (United States and Mexico), now extending northwards to Canada and southwards throughout Central America and the Antilles to South America (Galapagos). Zambia Zimbabwe

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: cultivated “Jardin du Roi “, France, originally from North America, 1784 (P-LAM, holo.; fiche LM 471/5!)
Morphology General Habit
Annual herb < 0.5 m high.
Morphology Stem
Stems brownish-green or purple-tinged, sometimes woody and/or angular, sparsely to moderately pilose with simple hairs, glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves membranaceous, green to greyish-green, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate to deltate, 2.8–5.6(–10) × 1.2–3.2(–5.2) cm, bases cuneate, often oblique, sometimes decurrent, margins sinuate-dentate with 2–9 acute antrorse lobes, rarely sinuate, apices acute, pilose (sometimes denser on veins, midribs and lower surfaces) to glabrous, stipulate; petioles (0.6–)1.5–4.5 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary; pedicels erect in flower and recurved in fruit, 3–8 mm long, sparsely pilose, 8–11 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx cupulate/campanulate, 3–4(?–7) mm long with five broadly triangular acute lobes 1.5–3 × 1.6–2.4(–4) mm with ciliate margins, sparsely pilose to glabrous externally, enlarged and persistent in fruit with connivent lobes 4–5 × 5–6 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow to orange-yellow with pale or sepia basal spots or blotches and an internal ring of dense long eglandular hairs exposed by recurvature of throat, broadly campanulate, 0.8–1.5 cm long and 1.2–1.8 cm diameter, shortly pubescent externally, margin undulating, ciliate and entire or with 5 short broadly triangular obtuse lobes ± 3 × 4 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens often unequal, exserted; filaments free for 3–5 mm; anthers purple and yellow, twisted and/or curved at maturity, oblong, bilobed, 2.8–4.4 × 0.9–1 mm, always exserted, maturing at different times and of different lengths within the same flower
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary pale green to brownish, ovoid, 1–2 × 1–2 mm, smooth, glabrous; style exserted up to 2.5 mm, 5.5–9 mm long; stigma 0.3–0.8 mm diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit maturing to ?purple, globose, 0.9–1.1(–1.4) cm diameter, smooth, sessile on invaginated pedicel base, enclosed by enlarged and inflated reticulatelyveined globose calyx which 2.2–2.5 cm diameter, the mouth closed by connivent lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 9–11(–16) per berry, yellow to orange, orbicular, 2.1–2.5 × 1.7–2.2 mm, compressed
Figures
Fig 15/5–11, p 72
Ecology
Weed of gardens, fields and cultivation, especially of crops; occasional to common; 1700–2000 m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
This species is commonly known as the tomate, miltomate or husk tomato; it has been in cultivation since pre-Colombian times and is still widely cultivated as a fruit, though it is rarely eaten raw. Wild and domesticated varieties have been recognised (viz. var. philadelphica and var. domestica – cf. Hudson, 1986) with morphological intermediates being common and the species exhibiting the wide variability characteristic of domesticated plants. The diagnostic features given by Agnew (1994) for P. ixocarpa suggest that the plants described belong to P. philadelphica.
Distribution
Flora districts: K3 K4 Range: Native to North America, sporadic weed in Sudan, Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa

Native to:

Belize, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Panamá

Introduced into:

Arizona, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Illinois, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Manchuria, Morocco, New South Wales, New York, Portugal, Queensland, Spain, Sudan, Turkey, Ukraine, Vermont, Victoria, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Physalis philadelphica Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Pringle, C.G. [6319], Mexico K000042233
Anthony, A.W. [411], Mexico K000042236
Gentry, H.S. [2633], Mexico K000042237
Palmer, E. [2], Mexico K000042238
Hinton, G.B. [1613], Mexico K000042239
Gentry, H.S. [1964], Mexico K000042242
Bourgeau, M. [3694], Mexico K000042244
Parry, C.C. [640], Mexico K000042245
Parry, C.C. [646], Mexico K000042246
Palmer, E. [288], Mexico K000042248
Balls, E.K. [B4902], Mexico K000042250
Botteri, M. [842], Mexico K000042388
Pringle, C.G. [9309], Mexico K000042234
Palmer, E. [946], Mexico K000042235
Schaffner, J.G. [701], Mexico K000042247
Hinton, G.B. [4034], Mexico K000042240
Bourgeau, M. [1754], Mexico K000042243
Pringle, C.G. [8446], Mexico K000042241
Pringle, C.G. [6263], Mexico K000042251
Hinton, G.B. [11449], Mexico K000042249

First published in Encycl. 2: 101 (1786)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Wisconsin Flora ed. 2: 1-818. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pretz, C. & Deanna, R. (2020). Typifications and nomenclatural notes on Physalis (Solanaceae) from the United States Taxon 69: 170-192.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Vladimirov, V. & al. (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 34 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 413-444.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 450 (1852).
  • Bol. Soc. Brot., Sér. 2, 44: 363–365, t. 9 (1970).
  • Encycl. Méth. Bot. 2, 1: 101 (1786).
  • Garcia de Orta 17: 286 quadro I (1969)
  • Rhodora 69: 213 (1967) pro parte excl. syn. P. ixocarpa et P. aequata.
  • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Wisconsin Flora ed. 2: 1-818. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Verloove, F. (2019). Manual of the Alien Plants of Belgium http://alienplantsbelgium.be.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Vladimirov, V. & al. (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 34 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 413-444.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 450 (1852)
  • Encycl. Méth. Bot. 2: 101 (1786)
  • F.P.U.: 55 (1962)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 48 (2005).
  • Fl. Egypt 6: 72 (1998)
  • Rhodora 69: 213 (1967) pro parte
  • Solanaceae Biol. & Syst.: 416 (1986)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/