1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Physalis L.
      1. Physalis viscosa L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico, Bolivia to Brazil and S. South America.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Erect to decumbent, subdichotomously ± branched, perennial herb, (5)14–40 cm high (said to reach 80 cm elsewhere), arising from an elongated cord-like, flexuous, knotted, creeping rhizome, yellowish-green, viscid, ± clothed all over with stalked-stellate 2–3-branched and also somewhat dendritic, spreading hairs of varying size, short in the Flora Zambesiaca area, more dense on new growth, furnished with sessile glands too
    Branches
    Branches subterete-angular, striate, scabrid Branches subterete-angular, striate, scabrid.
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or geminate; petiole 0.4–1. 8 cm long, slightly winged, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 0.9–4.2 × 0.4–2 cm, ovate to lanceolate, occasionally elliptic or obovate to spathulate, base cuneate or attenuate (or elsewhere sometimes ± cordate), and often oblique or unequal-sided, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse or somewhat acute, occasionally bluntly sub-acuminate, entire to coarsely sinuate-dentate distally (very rarely so in the Flora Zambesiaca area), the teeth unequal, obtuse, the sinuses rounded, densely viscid-hairy, glabrescent Leaves solitary or geminate; petiole 0.4–1.8 cm long, slightly winged, rather sheathing at the base; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 0.9–4.2 × 0.4–2 cm, ovate to lanceolate, occasionally elliptic or obovate to spathulate, base cuneate or attenuate (or elsewhere sometimes ± cordate), and often oblique or unequal-sided, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse or somewhat acute, occasionally bluntly sub-acuminate, entire to coarsely sinuate-dentate distally (very rarely so in the Flora Zambesiaca area), the teeth unequal, obtuse, the sinuses rounded, densely viscid-hairy, glabrescent.
    Pedicel
    Pedicel 10–20 mm long, hairy and glandular, in fruit elongated to 25 mm
    Disc
    Disk 0.2–0.3 mm high, fleshy, glabrous Disk 0.2–0.3 mm high, fleshy, glabrous.
    Ovary
    Ovary 1. 2–1. 7 × 1. 2–1. 6 mm, ovoid, glabrous.
    Style
    Style 7–9 mm long, filiform, straight or slightly bent
    Fruits
    Fruit greenish-yellow to orange, occasionally reddish, subsessile on the invaginated base of the drooping to pendulous calyx, 8 × 7 mm, turbinate or ± globose, viscid Fruit greenish-yellow to orange, occasionally reddish, subsessile on the invaginated base of the drooping to pendulous calyx, 8 × 7 mm, turbinate or ± globose, viscid.
    Seeds
    Seeds orange, 2 × 1. 8 mm, broadly ovate to suborbicular in outline, reticulate-foveate Seeds orange, 2 × 1.8 mm, broadly ovate to suborbicular in outline, reticulate-foveate.
    Note
    Common name: “Sticky Gooseberry” or “Sticky Physalis”.
    Distribution
    ZIM W, MOZ MS A large polymorphic species native to America from the south-eastern and south-central United States southwards throughout Central America and the Antilles to Argentina, occurring as an adventive in Europe and Africa. A weed of cultivation and in disturbe Zimbabwe Mozambique
    Habit
    Erect to decumbent, subdichotomously ± branched, perennial herb, (5)14–40 cm high (said to reach 80 cm elsewhere), arising from an elongated cord-like, flexuous, knotted, creeping rhizome, yellowish-green, viscid, ± clothed all over with stalked-stellate 2–3-branched and also somewhat dendritic, spreading hairs of varying size, short in the Flora Zambesiaca area, more dense on new growth, furnished with sessile glands too.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, drooping or nodding; pedicel 10–20 mm long, hairy and glandular, in fruit elongated to 25 mm. Flowers solitary, axillary, drooping or nodding.
    Calyx
    Calyx 6–8 mm long, 4–6(7) mm across at the base of the lobes, cylindric-campanulate, sub-angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, hairy, and glandular especially towards the base, glabrous inside apart from minute indumentum towards the lobe tips; lobes unequal, 1.8–3 × 1.8–3 mm, ovate or ± triangular, acute or acuminate, ciliate; in fruit ± yellowish when ripe, 17–23 × 15–20 mm, subglobose or ovoid, 10-angled and -ribbed, obtuse distally and acuminate at the summit, half to three-quarters filled by the fruit, with a few minute hairs along the ribs and more dense hairs towards the apex of the lobes, viscid, the lobes 3–5 × 2–3.5 mm and also hairy inside. Calyx 6–8 mm long, 4–6(7) mm across at the base of the lobes, cylindric-campanulate, sub-angled, truncate or invaginated at the base, hairy, and glandular especially towards the base, glabrous inside apart from minute indumentum towards the lobe tips; lobes unequal, 1. 8–3 × 1. 8–3 mm, ovate or ± triangular, acute or acuminate, ciliate; in fruit ± yellowish when ripe, 17–23 × 15–20 mm, subglobose or ovoid, 10-angled and -ribbed, obtuse distally and acuminate at the summit, half to three-quarters filled by the fruit, with a few minute hairs along the ribs and more dense hairs towards the apex of the lobes, viscid, the lobes 3–5 × 2–3.5 mm and also hairy inside
    Corolla
    Corolla yellowish or greenish-yellow, blotched with 5 dark purplish (or green) markings ± contrasting with the surrounding limb, 10–15 mm long, subrotate; tube glabrous, on the inside with dense felted indumentum from near the insertion of the stamens to the mouth; limb 10–15 mm across, sinuate or with 5 ± prominent angles, reflexed when fully expanded, hairy outside, glabrous inside, ciliate. Corolla yellowish or greenish-yellow, blotched with 5 dark purplish (or green) markings ± contrasting with the surrounding limb, 10–15 mm long, subrotate; tube glabrous, on the inside with dense felted indumentum from near the insertion of the stamens to the mouth; limb 10–15 mm across, sinuate or with 5 ± prominent angles, reflexed when fully expanded, hairy outside, glabrous inside, ciliate
    Stamens
    Stamens slightly exserted, one longer than the other 4, glabrous; filaments 3–5 mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base; anthers yellow, 2.5–3 mm long, linear to narrowly ovate-oblong in outline, straight after anthesis. Stamens slightly exserted, one longer than the other 4, glabrous; filaments 3–5 mm long, filiform, attached to the corolla tube near the base; anthers yellow, 2.5–3 mm long, linear to narrowly ovate-oblong in outline, straight after anthesis
    Pistil
    Ovary 1.2–1.7 × 1.2–1.6 mm, ovoid, glabrous; style 7–9 mm long, filiform, straight or slightly bent.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Chile Central, Chile North, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Paraguay, Uruguay

    Introduced into:

    Algeria, Cape Provinces, Easter Is., Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Mozambique, New South Wales, Northern Provinces, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia, Zimbabwe

    Physalis viscosa L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hassler, E. [741], Paraguay K001071933
    Klotzsch [282], Brazil K001071934
    Gaumer, G.F. [1798], Mexico K000042375
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001071932

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 183 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Grabandt, Weeds of Crops & Gard. South. Afr.: 130 (1985). Described from America.
    • J.M. Gibson, Wild Fl. Natal (Coast. Reg.): 91, t. 91 fig. 3 (1975).
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
    • Rhodora 69: 102 (1967).
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 434 (1852).
    • ed. 2: 262 (1762).
    • Sp. Pl.: 183 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0