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This species is accepted, and its native range is Nigeria to South Sudan and S. Africa.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FWTA]

Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A tree or shrub up to 20 ft. high
Morphology General Indumentum
White tomentum on all parts, except the surface of the leaves
Morphology General Spines
With mostly very big sharp hook-like spines, but sometimes also unarmed.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General
Shrub or small tree, 1. 2–4.5 m (elsewhere said to reach 8 m), conspicuously armed [or elsewhere unarmed in var albifolium (C H  Wright) Bitter]; hairs stellate, forming a white or cineraceous powdery-looking tomentum on all parts except upper side of the leaves, sessile or subsessile, echinoid, regular, soft, short or minute; prickles brown becoming reddish-brown upwards, to 20 mm long and 15 mm wide at the base, stout and recurved to rarely acicular, very sharp, stellate-felty at base and subglabrous upwards to quite glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens (4)5–6(10); filaments 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 4–8 mm long, lanceolate-ellipsoid, obtuse basally Stamens (4)5–6(10); filaments 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 4–8 mm long, lanceolate-ellipsoid, obtuse basally.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1. 5–3(5.5) × 1–3(5) mm, ± globose or ovoid, ± densely hairy, 2-locular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 6–8(10) mm long, very much shorter in male flowers, straight, very shortly hairy in the lower half or tomentose to near the apex in male flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit glossy, greenish becoming yellowish when ripe, later reddish, purplish or brown to blackish, 3.5–5 × 3–5 cm, ± globose to ellipsoid, smooth or warty, ± hairy on upper part, poisonous Fruit glossy, greenish becoming yellowish when ripe, later reddish, purplish or brown to blackish, 3.5–5 × 3–5 cm, ± globose to ellipsoid, smooth or warty, ± hairy on upper part, poisonous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds dirty-yellowish or brownish, 3–5(6) × 2.5–3.5(6) mm, strongly flattened, oblique-reniform or orbicular to ovate or obovate in outline, minutely reticulate all over Seeds dirty-yellowish or brownish, 3–5(6) × 2.5–3.5(6) mm, strongly flattened, oblique-reniform or orbicular to ovate or obovate in outline, minutely reticulate all over.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree, 1.2–4.5 m (elsewhere said to reach 8 m), conspicuously armed [or elsewhere unarmed in var. albifolium (C.H. Wright) Bitter]; hairs stellate, forming a white or cineraceous powdery-looking tomentum on all parts except upper side of the leaves, sessile or subsessile, echinoid, regular, soft, short or minute; prickles brown becoming reddish-brown upwards, to 20 mm long and 15 mm wide at the base, stout and recurved to rarely acicular, very sharp, stellate-felty at base and subglabrous upwards to quite glabrous.
Morphology Branches
Branches tomentose, gradually glabrescent, the recurved prickles usually conspicuous. Branches tomentose, gradually glabrescent, the recurved prickles usually conspicuous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary, the upper ones often appearing geminate or ternate; petiole (0.3)1–3 cm long; lamina membranous, 3–20 × 1.5–13.5 cm, ovate to elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, sometimes obovate or ± circular, base sub-hastate or truncate, rounded to cuneate, and ± unequal-sided, apex acute to obtuse or acuminate, irregularly sinuate-lobed to divided, the lobes ± triangular to elongate, entire to sinuate-lobulate, rounded, obtuse or sub-acuminate, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, upper surface ± hairy to glabrous, lower surface very densely greyish-white tomentose, generally with ± straight prickles on the midrib at least beneath. Leaves solitary, the upper ones often appearing geminate or ternate; petiole (0.3)1–3 cm long; lamina membranous, 3–20 × 1. 5–13.5 cm, ovate to elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, sometimes obovate or ± circular, base sub-hastate or truncate, rounded to cuneate, and ± unequal-sided, apex acute to obtuse or acuminate, irregularly sinuate-lobed to divided, the lobes ± triangular to elongate, entire to sinuate-lobulate, rounded, obtuse or sub-acuminate, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, upper surface ± hairy to glabrous, lower surface very densely greyish-white tomentose, generally with ± straight prickles on the midrib at least beneath
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes lateral, usually leaf-remote or occasionally leaf-opposed, at first sometimes appearing terminal, unbranched or occasionally forked, sub-umbelliform or racemiform, tomentose, usually sparingly armed, the prickles ± straight, 2–13-flowered, usually the lowest flower(s) larger and more prickly, sometimes all flowers unarmed, occasionally flowers solitary; peduncle none or very short; pedicels (5)8–15(23) mm long, slender but stouter in fertile flower(s), erect to recurved, leaving raised scars after abscission, in fruit elongated to 5 cm, strongly thickened distally and stout, ± recurved or deflexed. Cymes lateral, usually leaf-remote or occasionally leaf-opposed, at first sometimes appearing terminal, unbranched or occasionally forked, sub-umbelliform or racemiform, tomentose, usually sparingly armed, the prickles ± straight, 2–13-flowered, usually the lowest flower(s) larger and more prickly, sometimes all flowers unarmed, occasionally flowers solitary; peduncle none or very short; pedicels (5)8–15(23) mm long, slender but stouter in fertile flower(s), erect to recurved, leaving raised scars after abscission, in fruit elongated to 5 cm, strongly thickened distally and stout, ± recurved or deflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx (4)5-lobed or divided, greyish-white tomentose, ± prickly or unarmed, in fruit somewhat enlarged, very often more deeply divided, somewhat glabrescent, sparsely prickly; tube 2–4 mm long, ± campanulate; lobes 2–8 × 1.5–4 mm, triangular to ovate-elliptic or oblong, acute to long-acuminate, hairy mainly on the midrib to glabrous inside, in fruit rather leathery, to 10 × 5 mm, broadly lanceolate. Calyx (4)5-lobed or divided, greyish-white tomentose, ± prickly or unarmed, in fruit somewhat enlarged, very often more deeply divided, somewhat glabrescent, sparsely prickly; tube 2–4 mm long, ± campanulate; lobes 2–8 × 1. 5–4 mm, triangular to ovate-elliptic or oblong, acute to long-acuminate, hairy mainly on the midrib to glabrous inside, in fruit rather leathery, to 10 × 5 mm, broadly lanceolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla violaceous to purple or pale mauve, yellowish or whitish, sometimes with purplish-brown markings, 1.3–3 cm across, ± rotate to stelliform; lobes 4–17 × 1.5–3.5 mm, narrowly ligulate, acute, involute at the margins, tomentose outside and hairy mainly on midrib to subglabrous inside. Corolla violaceous to purple or pale mauve, yellowish or whitish, sometimes with purplish-brown markings, 1. 3–3 cm across, ± rotate to stelliform; lobes 4–17 × 1. 5–3.5 mm, narrowly ligulate, acute, involute at the margins, tomentose outside and hairy mainly on midrib to subglabrous inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 1.5–3(5.5) × 1–3(5) mm, ± globose or ovoid, ± densely hairy, 2-locular; style 6–8(10) mm long, very much shorter in male flowers, straight, very shortly hairy in the lower half or tomentose to near the apex in male flowers.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: South Africa, Cape of Good Hope, near Morleg, Drège s.n. (G-DC, holo.; AD, BM!, K!, P!, possible iso.)
Morphology General Habit
Shrub or tree, 2–6 m, erect, usually armed; young stems densely stellate-pubescent, trichomes porrect and multangulate, white-translucent or yellowish, densely matted, sessile or stalked, stalks up to 2 mm, rays 8–12, 0.1–0.5 mm, midpoints shorter than rays or up to 1 mm; prickles straight becoming curved, 8–17 mm long, 3–10 mm wide at base, flattened, prominent
Morphology Leaves
Leaf blades drying strongly discolorous, red-green to yellow-green above, white-grey underneath, ovate, sometimes elliptic, 8–15 × 6–12 cm, 1.5–2 times longer than wide, base cordate to truncate(auriculate), usually equal, margin lobed, the broadly deltate lobes 2–3 on each side, 1.5–4.5 cm long, often with secondary lobing, apically obtuse (rounded), extending 1/4–3/4 of the distance to the midvein; apex acute; densely stellate-pubescent abaxially, trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, sessile or stalked, stalks to 0.1 mm, rays 8–12, 0.15–0.8 mm, midpoints same length as rays or up to 1 mm, adaxially glabrescent, the trichomes reduced; primary veins 3–6 pairs; petiole 1.2–3 cm, ± 1/6 of the leaf length
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences rarely branched, 3–6 cm long, with 4–12 flowers; peduncle 0–35 mm long; rachis 0.5–2.5 cm long; peduncle and rachis unarmed; pedicels 1–3.5 cm long, in fruit 2.5–4.5 cm long, unarmed or with 1–5 prickles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers heterostylous, 5-merous, only the basal 1(–2) long-styled
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3–15 mm long, lobes long-deltate to broadly deltate, 2–7 mm long, acute to apiculate, usually with 2–10 prickles in long-styled flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white (mauve), 1.5–3.2 cm in diameter, lobed for 1/2–4/5 of its length, the lobes deltate or long-deltate, 6–15 × 2–5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens equal; anthers 4.5–6.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary stellatepubescent in the upper 1/5; style 7–10 mm long on long-styled flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries 1(–3) per infructescence, evenly green when young, yellow at maturity, 3–5 × 2–4.5 cm, apically rounded to apiculate or acute; fruiting calyx usually unarmed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 4–5 × 2.7–4 mm
Figures
Fig 24, p 199
Ecology
Forest margins, grassland, scrub, and disturbed open places; 1200–2500 m
Note
Solanum aculeastrum is a widespread and variable species found across the African highlands. It is easy to recognise by its markedly discolorous lobed leaves that are almost white below and by its prominent orange downwardly hooked prickles, although these are sometimes absent. The fruit is frequently compared to lemons: big, almost always single, yellow, round or apiculate or elongated, with a tendency to develop warts. Solanum aculeastrum is a distinctive species unlikely to be misidentified, except for possible confusion with the closely related S. phoxocarpum and S. thomsonii, which differ in fruit characters.
Distribution
Range: Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, South Africa Flora districts: U2 U4 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T6 T7

Native to:

Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Queensland

Solanum aculeastrum Dunal appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 1, 2010 Liben, L. [2441], Congo K000441453
Apr 1, 2010 Purseglove, J.W. [P2504], Uganda K000441371
Apr 1, 2010 Jarrett, T. [461], Uganda K000441368
Apr 1, 2010 Napier, E.R. [2423], Tanzania K000441345
Apr 1, 2010 Haarer, A.E. [811], Tanzania K000441370
Apr 1, 2010 Purseglove, J.W. [P3111], Uganda K000441336
Apr 1, 2010 Thomas, A.S. [Th323], Uganda K000441426
Apr 1, 2010 Purseglove, J.W. [P3563], Uganda K000441334
Feb 10, 2009 Connell, B. [33], South Africa K000441449
Feb 10, 2009 Theron, G.C. [1593], South Africa K000441450
Feb 10, 2009 Fourcade, H.G. [1216], South Africa K000441446
Feb 10, 2009 Scheffler, G. [286], Kenya K000441456
Feb 10, 2009 Jean Louis [5487], Congo K000441454
Feb 10, 2009 Prior, J. [263], Swaziland K000441445
Feb 10, 2009 Codd, L.E. [1478], South Africa K000441444
Feb 10, 2009 McClean, A.P.D. [582], South Africa K000441448
Feb 10, 2009 Wilde, W.J.J.O. de [4611], Cameroon K000441452
Feb 10, 2009 Breda [1159], South Africa K000441451
Feb 10, 2009 Lugard, E.J. [238], Kenya K000441443
Feb 6, 2009 Jayad, C. [23], Kenya K000441429
Feb 6, 2009 Napier, E.R. [1131], Kenya K000441438
Feb 6, 2009 Pedergast, H.D.V. [HDVP375], Swaziland K000441422
Feb 6, 2009 Perdue, R.E. [8393], Kenya K000441430
Feb 6, 2009 Veterinary Invest Labs, Nakuru [M438], Kenya K000441428
Feb 6, 2009 Richards, H.M. Mrs [23844], Tanzania K000441425
Feb 6, 2009 Devred, R. [832], Congo K000441437
Feb 6, 2009 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Kenya K000441421
Feb 6, 2009 Burtt, B.D. [3262], Rwanda K000441424
Feb 6, 2009 Codd, L.E. [3319], South Africa K000441416
Feb 6, 2009 Graham, M.D. [1711], Kenya K000441423
Feb 6, 2009 Hanland, P. [H10658], Kenya K000441432
Feb 6, 2009 Paulo, S. [550], Kenya K000441420
Feb 6, 2009 Bally, P.R.O. [B2517], Kenya K000441427
Feb 6, 2009 Wyk, E. van [EVW496], South Africa K000441405
Feb 6, 2009 Whittall, E. [227], Kenya K000441442
Feb 6, 2009 Napier, E.R. [1131], Kenya K000441434
Feb 6, 2009 Hendrickx, F.L. [F.L.H.1410], Congo K000441433
Feb 6, 2009 Dowson, W.J. [477], Kenya K000441439
Feb 6, 2009 Burtt, B.D. [3262], Rwanda K000441431
Jan 30, 2009 Perdue, R.E. [9109], Kenya K000441346
Jan 30, 2009 Haarer, A.E. [2465], Tanzania K000441366
Jan 30, 2009 Symes, Y.E. [635], Kenya K000441369
Jan 30, 2009 Ussher, C.B. [31], Uganda K000441350
Jan 30, 2009 Lye, K.A. [6243], Uganda K000441374
Jan 30, 2009 Tanner, R.E.S. [6035], Uganda K000441341
Jan 30, 2009 Germain, R.G.A. [3980], Congo K000441338
Jan 30, 2009 Scott-Elliot, G.F. [6977], Kenya K000441348
Jan 30, 2009 Bally, P.R.O. [B7439], Kenya K000441363
Jan 30, 2009 Hepper, F.N. [4911], Kenya K000441344
Jan 30, 2009 Eggeling, W.J. [1134], Uganda K000441373
Jan 30, 2009 Richards, H.M. Mrs [24651], Tanzania K000441352
Jan 30, 2009 Thulin, M. [3162], Tanzania K000441340
Jan 30, 2009 Richards, H.M. Mrs [24668], Tanzania K000441358
Jan 30, 2009 Katende, A.B. [1800], Uganda K000441361
Jan 30, 2009 Tanner, R.E.S. [5020], Tanzania K000441359
Jan 30, 2009 Tweedie, J. [696], Kenya K000441364
Jan 30, 2009 Bally, P.R.O. [B7496], Kenya K000441342
Jan 30, 2009 Saint Clair Thompson, G.W. [595], Tanzania K000441362
Jan 30, 2009 Richards, H.M. Mrs [21810], Tanzania K000441372
Jan 30, 2009 Dümmer, R.A. [4463], Uganda K000441349
Jan 30, 2009 Saint Clair Thompson, G.W. [410], Tanzania K000441357
Jan 30, 2009 Kerfoot, O. [1538], Tanzania K000441354
Jan 30, 2009 Maas Geesternanus, R.A. [4978], Kenya K000441367
Jan 30, 2009 Hepper, F.N. [4911], Kenya K000441455
Jan 30, 2009 Bogdan, A. [AB2953], Kenya K000441355
Jan 30, 2009 Stolz, A. [1532], Tanzania K000441365
Jan 30, 2009 Renvoize, S.A. [1879], Tanzania K000441343
Jan 30, 2009 Scott-Elliot, G.F. [7778], Uganda K000441347
Jan 30, 2009 Kangai Mulu [3], Kenya K000441351
Jan 30, 2009 Thulin, M. [2937], Tanzania K000441353
Jan 30, 2009 Borhidi, A. [85505], Tanzania K000441360
Jan 30, 2009 Dümmer, R.A. [1766], Kenya K000441337
Jan 22, 2009 Milne-Redhead, E. [10290], Tanzania K000441315
Jan 22, 2009 Tanner, R.E.S. [5511], Tanzania K000441322
Jan 22, 2009 Cunningham, M. [4054], Uganda K000441323
Jan 22, 2009 Cunningham, A. [4106], Uganda K000441332
Jan 22, 2009 Hughes [214], Tanzania K000441317
Jan 22, 2009 Goode, P.M. [G672], Uganda K000441326
Jan 22, 2009 Kerfoot, O. [2107], Kenya K000441314
Jan 22, 2009 Watkins, ? [287], Tanzania K000441320
Jan 22, 2009 Grimshaw, J.M. [JMG94448], Tanzania K000441312
Jan 22, 2009 Snowden, J.D. [1612], Uganda K000441333
Jan 22, 2009 Cheseny, C.M. [21], Kenya K000441319
Jan 22, 2009 Mbale, M. [NMK835], Kenya K000441316
Jan 22, 2009 Borhidi, A. [85505], Tanzania K000441307
Jan 22, 2009 Watkins, ? [149], Uganda K000441318
Jan 22, 2009 Lewalle, J. [65], Burundi K000441328
Jan 22, 2009 Thomas, A.S. [Th3812], Uganda K000441321
Jan 22, 2009 Loveridge, M.V. [486], Uganda K000441335
Jan 22, 2009 Stauffer, H.U. [558], Congo K000441331
Dec 31, 2008 Kuntze, O. [1140], South Africa K000441287
Dec 31, 2008 Buchanan, J. [138], Malawi K000441304
Dec 31, 2008 Meller, C.J. [s.n.], Malawi K000441285
Dec 31, 2008 Stauffer, H.U. [559], Congo K000441276
Dec 31, 2008 Crook, A.O. [M124], Zimbabwe K000441299
Dec 31, 2008 Methuen, L.o.r.d. [220A-B], Zimbabwe K000441300
Dec 31, 2008 Andrews, F.W. [A1954], Sudan K000441282
Dec 31, 2008 Scott, L. [s.n.], Malawi K000441284
Dec 31, 2008 Scheepers, J.C. [1043], South Africa K000441294
Dec 31, 2008 Adamson, G. [139], Malawi K000441306
Dec 31, 2008 [illegible] [4397], Zimbabwe K000441297
Dec 31, 2008 Latilo, M.G. [FHI34356], Cameroon K000441277
Dec 31, 2008 Ghesquiere, J. [723], Congo K000441278
Dec 31, 2008 Smuto, G.B. [32], South Africa K000441286
Dec 31, 2008 Shantz, H.L. [78], South Africa K000441290
Dec 31, 2008 Louis, J.L.P. [5487], Congo K000441274
Dec 31, 2008 Cunningham, J.F. [25], Malawi K000441305
Dec 31, 2008 Torre, A.R. [3021], Mozambique K000441296
Dec 31, 2008 Wild, H. [473], Zimbabwe K000441298
Dec 31, 2008 Lebrun, J.P. [3737], Congo K000441275
Dec 31, 2008 Wager, V.A. [39286], Congo K000441280
Dec 31, 2008 Gilliland, H.B. [494], Zimbabwe K000441301
Dec 31, 2008 Brummitt, R.K. [12213], Malawi K000441303
Dec 31, 2008 Schlieben, H.J. [7169], South Africa K000441289
Dec 31, 2008 Brummitt, R.K. [15212], Malawi K000441302
Dec 31, 2008 Macuacua, L. [1331], Mozambique K000441295
Dec 31, 2008 Friis, I. [440], Sudan K000441281
Dec 31, 2008 Marais, W. [126], South Africa K000441291
Dec 31, 2008 Bolus, H. [4754], South Africa K000441288
Dec 31, 2008 Lebrun, J.P. [7134], Congo K000441279
Dec 30, 2008 Bos, J.J. [1320], South Africa K000441264
Dec 30, 2008 Lebrun, J.P. [9089], Congo K000441271
Nov 1, 2008 Letouzey, R. [13490], Cameroon K000028634
Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13600], Cameroon K000580117
Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [4380], Cameroon K000109669
Feb 1, 2000 Onana, J.-M. [505], Cameroon K000339160
Aug 1, 1961 Swarbrick, J. T. [2395], Cameroon K000028635
Nov 1, 1958 Hepper, F.N. [2183], Cameroon K000028638
Jul 2, 1905 Scheffler, G. [306], Kenya K000441283
Jul 1, 1905 Meurillon, A. [CNAD1266], Cameroon K000028633
Kenya 16336.000
Hughes, J. [214], Tanzania 16654.000
Richards, H.M. [23844], Tanzania 7414.000
Welwitsch [6095], Angola K000414089 Unknown type material
Welwitsch [6095b], Angola K000414090
Wolley-Dod, A.H. [409], South Africa K000414157 isotype
Flanagan, H.G. [1290], South Africa K000414159 isotype
Luke, Q. [14273], Kenya K001156736
Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [10277], Cameroon K001167991
Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000414160 isotype
Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000414158
Hughes [214], Tanzania K001156734
Ujor, E.U. [FHI 30449], Cameroon K000028636
Longman, H.A. [s.n.] K001167992
Bolus, H. [s.n.], South Africa K000441293
KSCP [3/74/2000], Kenya K001156735

First published in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 13(1): 366 (1852)

Accepted by

  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0