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This species is accepted, and its native range is a cultigen from NE. Tropical Africa.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: Ethiopia, J. Burser vol. 9 no. 17 (UPS, lecto. designated by Hepper & Jaeger in K.B. 40: 391, 1985)
Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herb or shrub, 0.3–1 m, erect, unarmed;
Morphology Stem
young stems glabrous to ± stellate-pubescent with trichomes porrect, translucent or orangetranslucent, sessile or shortly stalked, stalks up to 0.1 mm, rays ± 8(–12), 0.15–0.3 mm, midpoints shorter than rays
Morphology Leaves
Leaf blades drying concolorous to discolorous, yellowgreen to dark red-brown or almost black, 2–3 times longer than wide, ovate (elliptic), 5–18 × 2.5–10 cm, base cuneate to rounded, often unequal or oblique, margin subentire to weakly lobed, the lobes up to 3 on each side, up to 1.5 cm long, broadly rounded (acute) and extending up to 1/4 of the distance to the midvein, apex acute; glabrous to stellate-pubescent; trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, sessile or shortly stalked, stalks to 0.1 mm, rays ± 8(–12), 0.2–0.35 mm, midpoints shorter than rays, adaxially with thick stalks and reduced rays and midpoints, often with minute simple hairs; primary veins 3–6 pairs; petiole 1–4 cm, 1/4–1/3 of the leaf length
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences not branched, with 1–2(10) flowers, 1–1.8 cm long; peduncle 0–0.5 mm long; rachis 0–1 cm long; pedicels 0.5–2 cm long in flower, in fruit 0.7–2.5 cm long. Flowers perfect, 5–10-merous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3.5–9 mm long, lobes broadly deltate, 1.5–5 mm long, acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, 0.8–1.8 cm in diameter, lobed for ± 2/3 of its length, lobes deltate, 2.5–8 × 1.5–4.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens equal; anthers 2.3–4(–6) mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous or stellate-pubescent in the upper 1/5; style 4.5–9 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries 1–4 per infructescence, evenly green or striped when young, orange at maturity, spherical or variously shaped, (10–)15–25(–50) mm in diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2.1–3.5 × 2–2.5 mm
Ecology
Cultivated in woodland and wooded grassland zones; does not naturalise
Note
Solanum aethiopicum is a widespread cultivated vegetable crop, and includes all cultivated forms of S. anguivi. Solanum aethiopicum can be identified and distinguished from S. anguivi by a combination of the following characters: annual herbaceous habit, frequent lack of stellate indumentum, smaller and more entire leaves, 1–2(–10) flowers per inflorescence, short and thick pedicels of fruit crop varieties, more than 5 perianth lobes, ovary enlarged even at anthesis, fruit over 1 cm in diameter and with more than two locules, not detaching easily from the pedicels, immature fruit striped and/or not green when immature, and seeds over 2.5 mm long. Leaf vegetable varieties are easily recognizable by their thin membranous leaves and dark red-brown, almost black drying colour; these have up to 10 small flowers. Precise limits of this species are difficult to specify due to the wide variety of infrequently occurring characters. Prickly forms of S. aethiopicum have been recorded from European botanical gardens (Lester & Niakan, In: Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics, pp. 433–456. 1986), but are not known in Africa. Solanum aethiopicum, S. gilo, S. olivare, and S. integrifolium are all interfertile cultivated races of S. anguivi. The cultivars have been separated into four groups: Gilo group (with stellate hairs and large fleshy variably shaped fruits that taste like carrots or green beans, common in Brazil), Shum group (leaf vegetable with no stellate hairs or prickles, small fruits ± 2 cm in diameter, common in Africa), Kumba group (edible leaves that are almost glabrous as well as sweet broad deeply-grooved fruits), and Aculeatum Group (with prickles, broad and deeply furrowed fruit, common in European botanical gardens but not known in Africa). Solanum anguivi was maintained as a distinct wild to semicultivated species due to its largely distinct morphology, lack of wild intermediates, and a probable selective pressure against new hybrids between S. aethiopicum and S. anguivi. Synonyms listed here are only those in common use or based on African types. Complete synonymy for S. aethiopicum can be found on the Solanaceae Source website (http://www.solanaceaesource.org).
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Range: Madagascar, and throughout South America and in some parts of Europe and Asia Range: Widely distributed in cultivation: Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Niger, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Congo-Kinshasa, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi,

[FWTA]

Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
A glabrous herb up to 2 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
White or pale violet flowers up to 2/3 in. diam.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Globose, red shining fruits up to 3/4 in. diam.

Native to:

Eritrea, Ethiopia

Introduced into:

Angola, Assam, Benin, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Illinois, Ivory Coast, Kentucky, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre

Solanum aethiopicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [63], Cameroon K000109670
Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [35], Cameroon K000109671
Jan 1, 1997 s.coll [s.n.] K001159961
Mar 30, 1995 Morton, J.K. [4193], Ghana K000212471
Mar 30, 1995 Hall [47129], Ghana K000489375
Mar 30, 1995 Thomas, N.W. [146], Nigeria K000489377
Mar 30, 1995 Lester, R.N. [046], Nigeria K000489376
Jan 1, 1994 Pervillé, M. [510], Madagascar K000212238 lectotype
Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [5001], Madagascar K000212237
Jun 28, 1905 Ramos, M. [15341], Philippines K000195941
Fanshawe, D.B. [F10143], Zambia K001158350
Chevalier, A. [8517], Central African Republic K001155823
Myers, J.G. [6587], Sudan K001156013
Gossweiler, J. [7966] K001155824
Greenway [6061], Tanzania K001156746
Louis, J. [11117], Congo K001155806
Baldwin, J.T. [6694], Liberia K001155628
Morton, J.K. [SL2838] K001155629
Trapnell, C.G. [1455], Zambia K001158351
Trapnell, C.G. [1459], Zambia K001158352
Trapnell, C.G. [1456], Zambia K001158354
Trapnell, C.G. [1754], Zambia K001158355
Trapnell, C.G. [1454/1], Zambia K001158359
Raynal, J. [20363], Rwanda K001155828
Schweinfurth, G. [3429] K001156014
Hall [GC47126] K001155617
Hall [GC47115] K001155623
Hall [GC47110] K001155624
Hall [GC47119] K001155625
Bates, G.L. [s.n.], Cameroon K001155810
Bates, G.L. [279] K001155822
Welwitsch [6093], Angola K001029791
Welwitsch [6091], Angola K001029792
Linder, D.H. [1850], Congo K001155820
Russell, P.G. [52220], Uganda K001156742
Nee, M. [16076], USA K001168006
Jenman [6483], Guyana K001168003
Baum, H. [725], Angola K001029793
Buchanan [155], Uganda K001158356 paratype
Buchanan, J. [6226], Malawi K001158357
Buchanan, J. [1186], Malawi K001158358
Tessmann, G. [78], Guinea K001155618
Tessmann, G. [2518], Cameroon K001155809
Tessmann, G. [525], Equatorial Guinea K001155811
Tessmann, G. [524], Equatorial Guinea K001155812
Seemann [167] K001162547
Dümmer, R. [2477], Uganda K001156753
Welw. [6077b], Angola K001029789 paratype
Thomas, N.W. [1237], Nigeria K001155626
Monteiro [s.n.], Angola K000414098 Unknown type material
Monteiro [s.n.], Angola K001029790
Gbile, Z.O. [FHI67578], Nigeria K001168013
Casas, F. [11991], Equatorial Guinea K001155819
Gouan [s.n.] K001156016
Elliot, G.F.S. [4955] K001155630
Wager, V.A. [s.n.], Congo K001155825
Wager, V.A. [s.n.], Congo K001155826
Wager, V.A. [s.n.], Congo K001155827
Westphal, E. [9141], Cameroon K001168010
Westphal, E. [9811], Cameroon K001168011
Tallantire, A.C. [t671], Uganda K001156738
Sigara [102], Tanzania K001156748
Purseglove, J.W. [P3562], Uganda K001156739
Purseglove, J.W. [3562], Uganda K001156741
Purseglove, J.W. [P1201], Uganda K001156743
Purseglove, J.W. [P1202], Uganda K001156744
Purseglove, J.W. [P1203], Uganda K001156751
s.coll [s.n.] K001167999
s.coll [8727] K001168000
s.coll [8727] K001168001
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001168002
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001168004
s.coll [s.n.] K001168005
s.coll [s.n.] K001168007
s.coll [117], Cameroon K001168008
s.coll [8], Nigeria K001168009
s.coll [FHI67578], Nigeria K001168012
s.coll [316], Nigeria K001155620
s.coll [8] K001155808
s.coll [P3563], Uganda K001156740
s.coll [450] K001156745
s.coll [D32], Uganda K001156750
s.coll [D42], Uganda K001156752
Chevalier, A.J.B. [22124], Côte d'Ivoire K001155627
Chevalier, A.J.B. [s.n.], Sudan K001155631
Michael Fay, J. [5426], Central African Republic K001155813
Michael Fay, J. [s.n.], Central African Republic K001155814
Michael Fay, J. [5420], Central African Republic K001155815
Michael Fay, J. [5421], Central African Republic K001155816
Michael Fay, J. [s.n.], Central African Republic K001155817
Michael Fay, J. [s.n.], Central African Republic K001155818
Yates, C.C. [20A], Nigeria K001155619
Yates, C.C. [43], Nigeria K001155621
Yates, C.C. [13A], Nigeria K001155622
Phiri, R. [128], Zambia K001158353
Mbailwa [82], Tanzania K001156747
Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] K001155821
Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] K001156015
Irvine, F.B. [3604], Nigeria K001168014
Frank, H. [H184/55], Tanzania K001156749
Nov 1, 1958 Thomas, N.W. [4357], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212463
Nov 1, 1958 Thomas, N.W. [456], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212464
Nov 1, 1958 s.coll. [52], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212466
Nov 1, 1958 Fisher, J.D. [91], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212462
Nov 1, 1958 Garrette, G.H. [22], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212465
Myers, J.G. [10219], Sudan Solanum gilo K001168898
Tallantine, A. [671], Uganda Solanum gilo 27157.000
Mann G. [1872], Equatorial Guinea Solanum gilo K000414037
Katende, A.B. [66], Uganda Solanum gilo K001168900
Makina, B. [11907], Sudan Solanum gilo K001168897
Makina, B. [11886], Sudan Solanum gilo K001168899
Rio de Janeiro Solanum worsleyi K000590092
Rio de Janeiro Solanum worsleyi K000590093
Burchell [8517], Brazil Solanum worsleyi K001058887
Solanum integrifolium 27797.000
Symon, D.E. [31470] Solanum integrifolium K001169053
s.coll [4], United Kingdom Solanum integrifolium K001169052

First published in Cent. Pl. II 2: 10 (1756)

Accepted by

  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Mao, A.A., Sinha, B.K., Verma, D. & Sarma, N. (2016). Check-List of Flora of Meghalaya: 1-273. Meghalaya Biodiversity Board, Shillong.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.W.T.A., ed. 1, 2: 208, partly (Thomas 146) and excl. syn.
  • Bitter in Fedde Rep. 16: 44 (1923).
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 217, partly
  • Amoen. Acad. 4: 307 (1759)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Mao, A.A., Sinha, B.K., Verma, D. & Sarma, N. (2016). Check-List of Flora of Meghalaya: 1-273. Meghalaya Biodiversity Board, Shillong.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 332 (1963).
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 217 (1906)
  • Cent. Pl. 2: 10 (1756)

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0