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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum torvum Sw.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to N. South America, Caribbean, E. Brazil.

    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A shrubby weed attaining 10 ft. or more in height
    Indumentum
    Pale stellate-tomentose
    Spines
    Flattened spines
    Flowers
    White or lilac flowers
    Fruits
    Fruits 1/3 in. diam.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Spreading or scrambling shrub or small tree up to 3(6) m, armed; hairs stellate, sessile to long stalked, regular or irregular, with numerous thin rays, or simple apically glandular, spreading hairs interspersed; prickles sub-fuscous, 3–7 mm long and 1–7 mm wide at the base, laterally compressed, broad based, straight or slightly recurved, apically subulate, basally hairy to glabrous
    Pedicel
    Pedicels (4)5–8(10) mm long, slender, glandular-pubescent or hispid-viscid, in fruit elongated to 20 mm, becoming stout and somewhat thickened distally
    Calyx
    Calyx green or purplish, 3–4 mm long, 5–6 mm across, cupular, often deeply lobed, not very accrescent, glandular-pubescent or hispid-viscid; lobes unequal, 1. 5–2.5 × 1–1. 5 mm, ovate or triangular to lanceolate, acute or apiculate to long-acuminate, in fruit enlarged to 4 × 2.5 mm, curved out at the apex, the sinuses glabrous and splitting as the corolla expands Calyx green or purplish, 3–4 mm long, 5–6 mm across, cupular, often deeply lobed, not very accrescent, glandular-pubescent or hispid-viscid; lobes unequal, 1.5–2.5 × 1–1.5 mm, ovate or triangular to lanceolate, acute or apiculate to long-acuminate, in fruit enlarged to 4 × 2.5 mm, curved out at the apex, the sinuses glabrous and splitting as the corolla expands.
    Ovary
    Ovary 0.7–1 mm long, globose or ± conical (or sometimes oblong in outline), sub-sulcate at the middle, reduced in male flowers, glabrous to finely covered with short, simple, glandular hairs denser near the top.
    Style
    Style 8–10 mm long, exceeding the stamens, curved, finely glandular-pubescent near the base, exserted, greatly reduced in male flowers and included within the connivent anthers
    Note
    Chromosome number: 2n=24, 48 The numerous fruits, the relatively large stellate hairs with a short central ray, and the fairly numerous straight or slightly curved prickles, provide distinctive features for this species. Common name: “Devil's Fig”.
    Ecology
    Naturalized at forest edges; 800–1100 m.
    Distribution
    A very common weed, originally native to the Antilles, nowadays pantropical, widespread throughout many tropical and subtropical regions of the New and Old Worlds, extending to Australia. Recorded in Africa as introduced from Senegal to Nigeria, Cape Verd MAL S Malawi
    Habit
    Spreading or scrambling shrub or small tree up to 3(6) m, armed; hairs stellate, sessile to long stalked, regular or irregular, with numerous thin rays, or simple apically glandular, spreading hairs interspersed; prickles sub-fuscous, 3–7 mm long and 1–7 mm wide at the base, laterally compressed, broad based, straight or slightly recurved, apically subulate, basally hairy to glabrous.
    Branches
    Branches whitish to ochraceous-rusty tomentose, ultimately glabrescent, with scattered prickles. Branches whitish to ochraceous-rusty tomentose, ultimately glabrescent, with scattered prickles
    Leaves
    Leaves often geminate at least upwards; petiole 0.8–3.8 cm long; lamina somewhat felty, 4.5–15 × 2.5–11 cm, broadly ovate, ovate-rhombic or ± elliptic, base usually ± cordate or truncate, often dimidiate, apex obtuse to acute, occasionally somewhat acuminate, usually sinuate to lobed, the lobes up to 7, broadly angular or somewhat triangular to rounded, acute to rounded, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, pubescent to scabrous above, the hairs often long stalked with long lateral rays and a short central ray, lower surface paler, densely greyish-white-ochraceous or rusty-ochraceous tomentose to shortly pubescent, with 4–5 pairs of ± straight, lateral nerves, unarmed or with a few straight prickles on the nerves beneath. Leaves often geminate at least upwards; petiole 0.8–3.8 cm long; lamina somewhat felty, 4.5–15 × 2.5–11 cm, broadly ovate, ovate-rhombic or ± elliptic, base usually ± cordate or truncate, often dimidiate, apex obtuse to acute, occasionally somewhat acuminate, usually sinuate to lobed, the lobes up to 7, broadly angular or somewhat triangular to rounded, acute to rounded, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, pubescent to scabrous above, the hairs often long stalked with long lateral rays and a short central ray, lower surface paler, densely greyish-white-ochraceous or rusty-ochraceous tomentose to shortly pubescent, with 4–5 pairs of ± straight, lateral nerves, unarmed or with a few straight prickles on the nerves beneath
    Inflorescences
    Cymes lateral, leaf-remote, axillary or extra-axillary, but ± erect and generally borne above the leaf canopy, once-forked to several times branched, ± corymbiform, at first sub-umbelliform, 1.5–3 cm across, ± congested, few to many-flowered, generally maturing numerous fruits, greenish-white-ochraceous or ochraceous-rusty tomentose, with simple, glandular hairs interspersed, nearly always unarmed, upper and late-season flowers male, lower flowers hermaphrodite; peduncle 0–0.5(1) cm long. Cymes lateral, leaf-remote, axillary or extra-axillary, but ± erect and generally borne above the leaf canopy, once-forked to several times branched, ± corymbiform, at first sub-umbelliform, 1. 5–3 cm across, ± congested, few to many-flowered, generally maturing numerous fruits, greenish-white-ochraceous or ochraceous-rusty tomentose, with simple, glandular hairs interspersed, nearly always unarmed, upper and late-season flowers male, lower flowers hermaphrodite; peduncle 0–0.5(1) cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers 5-merous; pedicels (4)5–8(10) mm long, slender, glandular-pubescent or hispid-viscid, in fruit elongated to 20 mm, becoming stout and somewhat thickened distally. Flowers 5-merous.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or occasionally lilacineous, rotate to stelliform; limb 1.5–2(3) cm across; lobes 4–6 × 4–6 mm, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, obtuse or acute to acuminate, undulate at the margins, hairy or tomentose outside on the median region, ± glabrous inside, spreading, connate by membranous sinuses. Corolla white or occasionally lilacineous, rotate to stelliform; limb 1. 5–2(3) cm across; lobes 4–6 × 4–6 mm, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, obtuse or acute to acuminate, undulate at the margins, hairy or tomentose outside on the median region, ± glabrous inside, spreading, connate by membranous sinuses
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 1–2 mm long; anthers (5)6–8 mm long, linear-lanceolate in outline, oblique basally, connivent into a cone. Stamen filaments 1–2 mm long; anthers (5)6–8 mm long, linear-lanceolate in outline, oblique basally, connivent into a cone
    Pistil
    Ovary 0.7–1 mm long, globose or ± conical (or sometimes oblong in outline), sub-sulcate at the middle, reduced in male flowers, glabrous to finely covered with short, simple, glandular hairs denser near the top; style 8–10 mm long, exceeding the stamens, curved, finely glandular-pubescent near the base, exserted, greatly reduced in male flowers and included within the connivent anthers.
    Fruits
    Fruits greenish, turning yellowish, drab yellow or dirty-brown when ripe, 8–15 mm in diameter, globose, eaten in curry. Fruits greenish, turning yellowish, drab yellow or dirty-brown when ripe, 8–15 mm in diameter, globose, eaten in curry
    Seeds
    Seeds drab brownish, numerous, 1.5–3 mm in diameter, compressed, somewhat angular, reniform or discoid, smooth to slightly granular all over. Seeds drab brownish, numerous, 1. 5–3 mm in diameter, compressed, somewhat angular, reniform or discoid, smooth to slightly granular all over
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24, 48.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 20 - 1700 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico.
    Habit
    Hierba, arbusto, arbolito
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bahamas, Belize, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Laccadive Is., Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maryland, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New South Wales, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tibet, Togo, Vietnam

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum torvum Sw. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2012 Luke, W.R.Q. [10411Z], Congo K000788325
    Aug 1, 2012 Phuong, V.X. [HNK314], Vietnam K000788322
    May 1, 2012 Brown, T. [s.n.], Egypt K000788126
    Aug 1, 2011 Jeffrey, C. [46], Gabon K000658893
    Aug 1, 2011 Jeffrey, C. [46], Gabon K000658894
    Aug 1, 2011 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [6608], Cameroon K000658878
    Aug 1, 2011 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [5104], Cameroon K000658879
    Aug 1, 2011 Breteler, F.J. [183], Cameroon K000658882
    Aug 1, 2011 Breteler, F.J. [8229], Gabon K000658890
    Aug 1, 2011 Tisserant, C. [s.n.], Congo K000658897
    Aug 1, 2011 Tessmann, G. [459], Gabon K000658892
    Aug 1, 2011 Bos, J.J. [3262], Cameroon K000658877
    Aug 1, 2011 Lowe, J. [3241], Cameroon K000658884
    Aug 1, 2011 Hart, T.B. [338], Congo K000658903
    Aug 1, 2011 Dechamps, R. [13023], Congo K000658904
    Aug 1, 2011 [illegible] [1], Cameroon K000658881
    Aug 1, 2011 Carrington, J.F. [66], Congo K000658907
    Aug 1, 2011 Compère, P. [222], Congo K000658899
    Aug 1, 2011 Linnavuori, R. [s.n.], Cameroon K000658883
    Aug 1, 2011 Nere, ? de [1753], Congo K000658900
    Aug 1, 2011 Nere, ? de [1174], Congo K000658906
    Aug 1, 2011 Bililong, M. [389], Cameroon K000658876
    Aug 1, 2011 Miebraer, J. [9517], Cameroon K000658880
    Aug 1, 2011 Fernández Casas, J. [11355], Equatorial Guinea K000658885
    Aug 1, 2011 Fernández Casas, J. [11540], Equatorial Guinea K000658886
    Aug 1, 2011 Griffon du Bellay, ? [s.n.], Gabon K000658896
    Aug 1, 2011 Bonnin, L. [408], Congo K000658898
    Aug 1, 2011 Samvura, A. [115], Congo K000658901
    Aug 1, 2011 Samvura, A. [115], Congo K000658902
    Aug 1, 2011 N'Kounkou, J.S. [230], Congo K000658905
    Apr 1, 2010 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [7409], Cameroon K000658875
    Jan 1, 2008 Cable, S. [1526], Cameroon K000541990
    Jan 1, 2008 Cable, S. [1526], Cameroon K000541991
    Jan 1, 2008 Cable, S. [322], Cameroon K000541996
    Jan 1, 2008 Khayota, B. [570], Cameroon K000541987
    Nov 1, 2006 Laws, S. [34], Guinea K000437736
    Sep 1, 2006 Fernández Casas, J. [11713], Equatorial Guinea K000658887
    Sep 1, 2006 Fernández Casas, J. [11619], Equatorial Guinea K000658888
    Sep 1, 2006 Fernández Casas, J. [10195], Equatorial Guinea K000658891
    Jun 1, 2006 Harvey, Y.B. [74], Cameroon K000339802
    Jun 1, 2006 Harvey, Y.B. [74], Cameroon K000339803
    Jun 1, 2006 Tadjouteu, F. [629], Cameroon K000339801
    Jan 1, 2006 Merrill, E.D. [3406], Philippines K000195977
    Jul 1, 2005 Laws, S. [61], Guinea K000437748
    Oct 1, 2003 Onana, J.-M. [1925], Cameroon K000212632
    Oct 1, 2003 Tadjouteu, F. [409], Cameroon K000212631
    Feb 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [7059], Cameroon K000109696
    Feb 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [7903], Cameroon K000109687
    Feb 1, 2002 Cable, S. [2780], Cameroon K000109693
    Feb 1, 2002 Cable, S. [2552], Cameroon K000109694
    Feb 1, 2002 Cable, S. [907], Cameroon K000109688
    Feb 1, 2002 Kenfack, D. [324], Cameroon K000109691
    Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1644], Cameroon K000109692
    Feb 1, 2002 Groves, M. [51], Cameroon K000109689
    Feb 1, 2002 Ryan, P. [336], Cameroon K000109690
    Feb 1, 2002 Ghogue, J.-P. [67], Cameroon K000109695
    Sep 1, 1993 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1485], Cameroon K000198714
    Jan 1, 1993 Malcomber, S. [1722], Madagascar K000212431
    Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [11], Cameroon K000190193
    Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [164], Cameroon K000190194
    Jan 1, 1993 Mbani, J. M. [41], Cameroon K000190192
    Jan 1, 1993 Mbani, J. M. [51], Cameroon K000190196
    Jan 1, 1993 Kwangue, A. [5], Cameroon K000190195
    Dec 1, 1992 Agra, M.F. [1477], Brazil K001058850
    Jan 1, 1992 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1308], Cameroon K000518857
    Jan 1, 1991 Manning, S.D. [155], Cameroon K000028663
    Nov 29, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1295], Brazil K001058848
    Nov 29, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1295], Brazil K001058849
    Jan 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1248], Brazil K001058846
    Jan 1, 1990 Rovirosa, J.N. [277], Mexico K000063976
    Jan 1, 1989 Gaumer, G.F. [1167], Mexico K000063977
    Jan 1, 1989 Gaumer, G.F., Mexico K000063978
    Jan 1, 1986 Thomas, D.W. [4506], Cameroon K000028599
    Jan 1, 1986 Thomas, D.W. [4234], Cameroon K000028598
    Jan 1, 1986 Thomas, D.W. [4264], Cameroon K000028600
    Jan 1, 1983 L.B. [11864], Madagascar K000212432
    Jan 1, 1977 Webb, J. [328], Cameroon K000028596
    Jan 1, 1971 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8532], Cameroon K000028595
    Jan 1, 1960 Morton, J.K. [931], Cameroon K000028606
    Nov 1, 1958 Hepper, F.N. [2209], Cameroon K000028603
    Jul 4, 1905 Conn, B.J. [5072], Papua New Guinea K000788347
    Jul 4, 1905 Anonymous [1410], Hong Kong K000788293
    Jul 3, 1905 Gillett, J.B. [15284], Nigeria K000658851
    Jul 3, 1905 Deighton, F.C. [5470], Sierra Leone K000658793
    Jul 3, 1905 Deighton, F.C. [597], Sierra Leone K000658799
    Jul 3, 1905 Deighton, F.C. [229], Sierra Leone K000658800
    Jul 3, 1905 Dalziel, J.M. [1190], Nigeria K000658839
    Jul 3, 1905 Meikle, R.D. [1272], Nigeria K000658846
    Jul 3, 1905 Melville, F.A. [24], Sierra Leone K000658797
    Jul 3, 1905 Adames, P. [527], Liberia K000658807
    Jul 3, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [2511], Sierra Leone K000658794
    Jul 3, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [7773], Côte d'Ivoire K000658813
    Jul 3, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [7586], Ghana K000658820
    Jul 3, 1905 Angus, A. [2878], Zambia K000658681
    Jul 3, 1905 Morton, J.K. [6331], Ghana K000658833
    Jul 3, 1905 Boughey, A.S. [107], Equatorial Guinea K000658872
    Jul 3, 1905 Binuyo, A. [FHI41356], Nigeria K000658849
    Jul 3, 1905 Haswell, D.R. [97], Sierra Leone K000658795
    Jul 3, 1905 Haswell, D.R. [97], Sierra Leone K000658796
    Jul 3, 1905 Gledhill, D. [40], Sierra Leone K000658798
    Jul 3, 1905 Gledhill, D. [771], Nigeria K000658853
    Jul 3, 1905 Gledhill, D. [860], Nigeria K000658855
    Jul 3, 1905 Tuley, P. [627], Nigeria K000658850
    Jul 3, 1905 Raynal, A. [15949], Guadeloupe K000788414
    Jul 3, 1905 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [4601], Liberia K000658801
    Jul 3, 1905 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [1718], Côte d'Ivoire K000658815
    Jul 3, 1905 Enti, A.A. [sp146], Ghana K000658834
    Jul 3, 1905 Chapman, J.D. [5161], Nigeria K000658866
    Jul 3, 1905 Dowsett-Lemaire, F. [1110], Malawi K000658674
    Jul 3, 1905 Tawakali, E.J. [296], Malawi K000658675
    Jul 3, 1905 Breteler, F.J. [7081], Togo K000658817
    Jul 3, 1905 Oldeman, R.A.A. [90], Côte d'Ivoire K000658816
    Jul 3, 1905 Veldkamp, J.F. [6086], Ghana K000658821
    Jul 3, 1905 Bernardi, L. [8244], Côte d'Ivoire K000658814
    Jul 3, 1905 Adam, J.G. [20453], Liberia K000658808
    Jul 3, 1905 Ern, H. [2131], Togo K000658860
    Jul 3, 1905 Bos, J.J. [1927], Liberia K000658805
    Jul 3, 1905 Bos, J.J. [2031], Liberia K000658806
    Jul 3, 1905 Bos, J.J. [2385], Liberia K000658810
    Jul 3, 1905 Bos, J.J. [2633], Liberia K000658811
    Jul 3, 1905 Bos, J.J. [1967], Liberia K000658812
    Jul 3, 1905 Louis, A.M. [364], Gabon K000658562
    Jul 3, 1905 Irvine, F.R. [1754], Ghana K000658822
    Jul 3, 1905 Irvine, F.R. [1754], Ghana K000658823
    Jul 3, 1905 Irvine, F.R. [1356], Ghana K000658825
    Jul 3, 1905 Irvine, F.R. [4854], Ghana K000658830
    Jul 3, 1905 Irvine, F.R. [5188], Ghana K000658831
    Jul 3, 1905 Scholz, U. [418], Togo K000658859
    Jul 3, 1905 Scholz, U. [533], Togo K000658863
    Jul 3, 1905 Cardoso, J. [s.n.], Cape Verde K000658792
    Jul 3, 1905 Sharland, R.E. [1856], Nigeria K000658867
    Jul 3, 1905 Sharland, R.E. [2041], Nigeria K000658868
    Jul 3, 1905 Guinea, E. [s.n.], Equatorial Guinea K000658874
    Jul 3, 1905 Andoh, J.E. [4419], Ghana K000658824
    Jul 3, 1905 Andoh, J.E. [5267], Ghana K000658826
    Jul 3, 1905 Andoh, J.E. [5267], Ghana K000658827
    Jul 3, 1905 Jansen, J.W.A. [784], Liberia K000658809
    Jul 3, 1905 Ross, A.F. [135/10/8], Nigeria K000658840
    Jul 3, 1905 Head, D. [81], Nigeria K000658852
    Jul 3, 1905 Bequaert, J. [188], Liberia K000658803
    Jul 3, 1905 Pilz, G.E. [1865], Nigeria K000658865
    Jul 3, 1905 Obeng-Darko, K. [5027], Ghana K000658829
    Jul 3, 1905 Gbile, Z.O. [FHI20550], Nigeria K000658854
    Jul 3, 1905 Gbile, Z.O. [FHI73662], Nigeria K000658870
    Jul 3, 1905 Kennedy, J.D. [1766], Nigeria K000658837
    Jul 3, 1905 Kennedy, J.D. [1766], Nigeria K000658838
    Jul 3, 1905 Kennedy, J.D. [2417], Nigeria K000658842
    Jul 3, 1905 Mori, S. [19222], Ghana K000658818
    Jul 3, 1905 Stubbings, H.G. [84], Nigeria K000658847
    Jul 3, 1905 Stubbings, H.G. [84], Nigeria K000658848
    Jul 3, 1905 Lester, R.N. [39], Nigeria K000658864
    Jul 3, 1905 Lewis, W.L. [7674], Ghana K000658819
    Jul 3, 1905 Iriah, H.B. [FHI23085], Nigeria K000658845
    Jul 3, 1905 Umana, O.A. [FHI29110], Nigeria K000658844
    Jul 3, 1905 Balaka, J.L. [777], Malawi K000658676
    Jul 3, 1905 MacGregor, W.D. [571], Nigeria K000658836
    Jul 3, 1905 Wit, P. [2241], Nigeria K000658856
    Jul 3, 1905 Wit, P. [132], Nigeria K000658857
    Jul 3, 1905 Mathey, A. [172], Togo K000658861
    Jul 3, 1905 Mathey, A. [184], Togo K000658862
    Jul 3, 1905 Whiting, A.G.S. [16], Ghana K000658828
    Jul 3, 1905 Daramola, B.D. [96], Nigeria K000658858
    Jul 3, 1905 Carvalho, ? [2022], Equatorial Guinea K000658871
    Jul 3, 1905 Carvalho, ? [2022], Equatorial Guinea K000658873
    Jul 3, 1905 Hall, ? [47102], Ghana K000658835
    Jul 3, 1905 Daniel, P.M. [31], Liberia K000658802
    Jul 3, 1905 Akpabla, G. [180], Ghana K000658832
    Jul 3, 1905 Newbury, R.J. [13], Nigeria K000658841
    Jul 3, 1905 Odewo, T.K. [FHI67123], Nigeria K000658869
    Jun 29, 1905 Cabezas, F. [111], Equatorial Guinea K000788321
    Jun 28, 1905 Barbon, E.B. [1976], Philippines K000195927
    Jun 28, 1905 Barbon, E.B. [8590], Philippines K000195947
    Jun 28, 1905 Barbon, E.B. [PPI8208], Philippines K000196016
    Jun 27, 1905 Croat, T.B. [52975], Philippines K000196017
    Jun 27, 1905 Barbon, E.B. [5935], Philippines K000195944
    Jun 27, 1905 Barbon, E.B. [8271], Philippines K000195948
    Jun 27, 1905 Gaerlan [4887], Philippines K000195945
    Jun 27, 1905 Reynoso [4379], Philippines K000195946
    Jun 26, 1905 Brenan, J.P.M. [8443], Nigeria K000658843
    Jun 26, 1905 Dinklage, M. [3307], Liberia K000658804
    Jun 26, 1905 Fernández Casas, J. [10059], Equatorial Guinea K000658889
    Jun 26, 1905 Debeaux, G. [130], Congo K000658895
    Jun 13, 1905 Manning, S.D. [1170], Cameroon K000028665
    May 25, 1905 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9176], Cameroon K000028594
    Sandwith, N.Y. [971], St. Kitts & Nevis K001161196
    Sayers, D. [NGF21800], Papua New Guinea K001153794
    Sayers, D. [NGF24160], Papua New Guinea K001153798
    Bullock, A.A. [646], India K001152981
    Hepper, F.N. [4411], Sri Lanka K001152849
    Hepper, F.N. [4482], Sri Lanka K001152852
    Hepper, F.N. [4506], Sri Lanka K001152854
    Hepper, F.N. [4713], Sri Lanka K001152856
    Hepper, F.N. [4576], Sri Lanka K001152857
    Hepper, F.N. [4519], Sri Lanka K001152858
    Hepper, F.N. [4765], Sri Lanka K001152859
    Hepper, F.N. [4415], Sri Lanka K001152999
    Hepper, F.N. [4649], Sri Lanka K001153000
    Hepper, F.N. [4500], Sri Lanka K001153001
    Brass, L.J. [28855], Papua New Guinea K001153802
    Brass, L.J. [28657], Papua New Guinea K001153804
    Brass, L.J. [150], Australia K001154184
    Williams, R.O. [11689], Trinidad & Tobago K001161171
    Williams, R.O. [11678], Trinidad & Tobago K001161172
    Williams, R.O. [11836], Trinidad & Tobago K001161173
    Sands, M.J.S. [2000], Papua New Guinea K001153811
    Sands, M.J.S. [2010], Papua New Guinea K001153815
    Sands, M.J.S. [6262], Indonesia K001153822
    Mooney, H.F. [3934], India K001152864
    Mooney, H.F. [3332], India K001152865
    Mooney, H.F. [120] K001152957
    Mooney, H.F. [688] K001152979
    Coode, M. [NGF29781] K001153809
    Womersley, J.S. [NGF13459], Papua New Guinea K001153796
    Womersley, J.S. [3408], Papua New Guinea K001153800
    Womersley, J.S. [NGF8786], Papua New Guinea K001153821
    Maitland, T.D. [183], Cameroon K000028586
    Maitland, T.D. [88], Cameroon K000028587
    Maitland, T.D. [88], Cameroon K000028588
    Maitland, T.D. [281], Cameroon K000028589
    Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Cameroon K000028590
    Mooney [688] K001152977
    Mooney [120] K001152982
    Price, W.R. [170], Malaysia K001153613
    Fischer, C.E.C. [577], India K001152872
    Baker, R.E.D. [14534], Trinidad & Tobago K001161169
    Castle-Smith, P.M. [80], Malaysia K001153296
    Clemens, M.S. [s.n.], Australia K001154196
    Clemens, M.S. [s.n.], Australia K001154197
    Binuyo, A. [FHI 35550], Cameroon K000028584
    Binuyo, A. [FHI 35550], Cameroon K000028585
    Cox [532], India K001152862
    Whitmore, T.C. [759], Solomon Is. K001155358
    Ridley, H.N. [s.n.], Indonesia K001153548
    Ball, J. [s.n.], Jamaica K001161183
    Hutchinson, J. [138], Cameroon K000028601
    Hutchinson, J. [138], Cameroon K000028602
    Smith, A.C. [7024], Fiji K001155497
    Smith, A.C. [9071], Fiji K001155498
    Smith, A.C. [4306], Fiji K001155501
    Millar, A.N. [NGF37690], Papua New Guinea K001153799
    Millar, A.N. [NGF40552], Papua New Guinea K001153824
    Schodde, R. [2826], Papua New Guinea K001153792
    Symon, D.E. [4743], Australia K001154186
    Symon, D.E. [4755] K001154187
    Symon, D.E. [4744], Australia K001154188
    Darbyshire, P.J. [796], Papua New Guinea K001153793
    Hoogland, R.D. [8853], Papua New Guinea K001153790
    Hoogland, R.D. [4845], Papua New Guinea K001153801
    Richardson, W.D. [812], Trinidad & Tobago K001161177
    Degener, O. [13628], Fiji K001155499
    Degener, O. [14268], Fiji K001155500
    Carrick, J. [1463], Malaysia K001153290
    Streimann, H. [NGF26020], Papua New Guinea K001153795
    Kairo, A. [215] K001153819
    Griffith [s.n.] K001152564
    Grimes, J. [1104], Indonesia K001153673
    Grimes, J. [1103], Indonesia K001153674
    Grimes, J. [1104], Indonesia K001153675
    Burkill, H.M. [2253], Malaysia K001153284
    Burkill, H.M. [2854], Malaysia K001153292
    Bauer, P.J. [58], Cameroon K000028583
    Bauer, P.J. [185], Cameroon K000028597
    Stevens, P.F. [LAE58630], Papua New Guinea K001153823
    McKee, H.S. [4056], New Caledonia K001155423
    Lelean, Y. [LAE51317], Papua New Guinea K001153808
    Lelean, Y. [LAE51317], Papua New Guinea K001153810
    Stearn, W.T. [154], Jamaica K001161189
    Craven, L.A. [89], Papua New Guinea K001155356
    Hansen, C. [1632], Brunei K001153598
    Clarkson, J.R. [5100], Australia K001154183
    Irvine, A.K. [980], Australia K001154198
    Beaman, J.H. [9500], Malaysia K001153612
    Beaman, J.H. [8561], Malaysia K001153659
    Beaman, J.H. [7174], Malaysia K001153660
    Hartweg [s.n.], Jamaica K001161188
    Matthew, K.M. [41189], India K001152867
    Broadway, W.E. [4594], Trinidad & Tobago K001161168
    Broadway, W.E. [4594], Trinidad & Tobago K001161170
    Broadway, W.E. [s.n.], Trinidad & Tobago K001161179
    White, C.T. [2095], New Caledonia K001155424
    Christensen, H. [50], Malaysia K001153630
    Whistler, A. [6747] K001155535
    Mann [55], Equatorial Guinea K000232541 syntype
    Lee, B. [S41826], Malaysia K001153567
    Lugas, L. [52], Malaysia K001153639
    Lugas, L. [1631], Malaysia K001153640
    Lugas, L. [652], Malaysia K001153641
    Lugas, L. [2164], Malaysia K001153647
    Lugas, L. [1432], Malaysia K001153655
    Lugas, L. [1043], Malaysia K001153664
    Chai, P. [S45229], Malaysia K001153592
    Chai, P. [S35325], Malaysia K001153611
    Endert, F.H. [1718], Indonesia K001153593
    Burbidge, F.W. [s.n.], Malaysia K001153633
    Duthie, J.F. [s.n.] K001170385
    Schlechter, F.R.R. [s.n.], New Caledonia K001155425
    Henry, A. [12552], China K001152560
    Wright, C. [1350], Cuba K001161180
    Wallich [s.n.] K001152880
    Wallich [2627], Malaysia K001153282
    Davidse, G. [7374], Sri Lanka K001152850
    Davidse, G. [7374], Sri Lanka K001152851
    Peck, M.E. [272], Honduras K001160867
    Tucker, J.M. [481], El Salvador K001160870
    Beetle, A.A. [8789], Costa Rica K001160875
    Jenman [4509], Guyana K001162384
    Jenman [5376], Guyana K001162385
    Hohenacker, R.F. [36], India K001152879
    Collins, D.J. [66], Thailand K001153352
    Koorders, S.H. [22894ß], Indonesia K001153554
    Koorders, S.H. [23191ß], Indonesia K001153556
    Koorders, S.H. [23191B], Indonesia K001153557
    Koorders, S.H. [23569ß], Indonesia K001153559
    Koorders, S.H. [27966ß], Indonesia K001153560
    Koorders, S.H. [30132ß], Indonesia K001153562
    Hoare, A. [3], Malaysia K001153643
    Lace, J.H. [3242], Myanmar K001152991
    Lace, J.H. [2809], Myanmar K001152993
    Belcher, R.O. [20], India K001152860
    Ekman, E.L. [H14318], Dominican Republic K001161190
    Ekman, E.L. [H 11112], Dominican Republic K001161191
    Kuduk, M. [6179] K001153807
    Cock, M.J.W. [23], Vanuatu K001155357
    Cock, M.J.W. [11], Vanuatu K001155485
    Cock, M.J.W. [10], Vanuatu K001155486
    Hosseus, C.C. [479], Thailand K001153354
    Veldkamp, J.F. [7852], Sri Lanka K001152997
    Stone, B.C. [14063], Malaysia K001153293
    Buderus, J. [NGF23938], Papua New Guinea K001153797
    Floyd, A. [3506], Papua New Guinea K001153820
    Eyma, P.J. [2166], Indonesia K001153670
    Kerenga, K. [LAE74247] K001153803
    Kerenga, K. [LAE77469] K001153817
    Kerenga, K. [LAE77240], Papua New Guinea K001153818
    Benjamin, M.A. [LAE67842], Papua New Guinea K001153816
    Robinson, H.C. [2450], Indonesia K001153547
    Buwalda, P. [6663], Indonesia K001153543
    Watt, G. [s.n.], India K001152980
    Smith, J.D. [1840], Guatemala K001160879
    Gaumer, G.F. [s.n.], Honduras K001160877
    Ladell, W.R.S. [260], Thailand K001153358
    Ladell, W.R.S. [213], Vietnam K001153360
    Horsfield, T. [Sol. 21], Jawa K001080492
    Horsfield, T. [Sol. 21], Jawa K001080493
    Gentle, P.H. [567], Belize K001160868
    Gentle, P.H. [2454], Belize K001160869
    Axelrod, F. [8049], Puerto Rico K001160876
    Said, I.M. [16185], Brunei K001153597
    Coveny, R.G. [6863], Australia K001154190
    Bourne [6293], India K001152866
    Bourne [6218] K001152868
    Bourne [s.n.], India K001152978
    Creagh, C.M.G. [s.n.], Malaysia K001153631
    Grierson, A.J.C. [3378], Bhutan K001152971
    Grierson, A.J.C. [1393], Bhutan K001152972
    Grierson, A.J.C. [2214], Bhutan K001152973
    Grierson, A.J.C. [2164], Bhutan K001152975
    Duaneh, J. [9], Malaysia K001153617
    Turckheim, H. von [3293], Dominican Republic K001161192
    Soyaux, H. [329], Gabon K000414040 syntype
    Gautier, L. [2422], Madagascar K000212430
    Zimmermann, R. [35], Thailand K001153356
    Fishlock, W.C. [185], British Virgin Is. K000299854
    Dechamps, R. [12063], Cuba K001161182
    Sundaling, D. [99459], Malaysia K001153628
    Sundaling, D. [97301], Malaysia K001153635
    Pleyte, D.R. [13], Indonesia K001153550
    Hahn, L. [410], Martinique K001161203
    Hahn, L. [410], Martinique K001161209
    Shea, G. [26024], Indonesia K001153579
    Shea, G. [27538], Indonesia K001153580
    Shea, G. [26526], Indonesia K001153582
    Shea, G. [27872], Indonesia K001153583
    Shea, G. [27538], Indonesia K001153584
    Shea, G. [75995], Malaysia K001153608
    Shea, G. [76847], Malaysia K001153615
    Millett [s.n.], China K001152563
    Gamble, J.S. [16274], India K001152877
    Gamble, J.S. [2460A] K001152964
    Dunlap [144], Cameroon K000028592
    Dunlap [104], Cameroon K000028593
    Fosberg, F.R. [62886], French Polynesia K001155564
    Hardial [239], Malaysia K001153291
    Hardial [497], Malaysia K001153294
    Mamit, J.D. [S33458], Malaysia K001153599
    Cuadra, A. [A260], Malaysia K001153601
    Cuadra, A. [A97], Malaysia K001153602
    Cuadra, A. [A2386], Malaysia K001153603
    Cuadra, A. [A2354], Malaysia K001153605
    Cuadra, A. [A2228], Malaysia K001153625
    Cuadra, A. [A1194], Malaysia K001153626
    Cuadra, A. [A4068], Malaysia K001153629
    Greenwood, W. [30], Fiji K001155492
    Tothill, J.D. [s.n.], Fiji K001155487
    Tothill, J.D. [s.n.], Fiji K001155488
    Tothill, J.D. [637], Fiji K001155489
    Tothill, J.D. [565], Fiji K001155490
    Soakai, E. [232], Tonga K001155536
    Soakai, E. [892], Tonga K001155538
    Combs, R. [185], Cuba K001161181
    Dumas [s.n.] K001170389
    Taylor, P.M. [P-356], Indonesia K001153671
    Thompson, S.A. [1407], Cameroon K001170391
    Tuerckheim, H. von [8557], Guatemala K001160878
    Heller, A.A. [381], Puerto Rico K001161195
    Curtiss, A.H. [106], Bahamas K001161205
    Wiriadinata, H. [590], Indonesia K001153544
    Wiriadinata, H. [1198], Indonesia K001153581
    Balajadia [2622], Malaysia K001153653
    Balajadia [2622], Malaysia K001153654
    Goklin, T. [2045], Malaysia K001153637
    Mahyar, U.W. [881], Indonesia K001153677
    Mahyar, U.W. [881], Indonesia K001153678
    Mahyar, U.W. [290], Indonesia K001153813
    Mahyar, U.W. [448], Indonesia K001153814
    Morales, C. [728], Costa Rica K001160873
    Langlassé, E. [139], Mexico K000063974
    Anderson, T. [s.n.], Indonesia K001153555
    Tsiang, Y. [459], China K001152561
    Wager, V.A. [S84] K001170393
    Franc [508], New Caledonia K001155426
    Thorel, M. le [9074] K001153348
    Andau, D. [56], Malaysia K001153571
    Tagawa, M. [T3160], Thailand K001153362
    Iwatsuki, k. [T8512], Thailand K001153355
    Iwatsuki, k. [S651], Indonesia K001153541
    Lawrence, E. [194], Tonga K001155539
    Huter [s.n.], India K001152870
    Huter [s.n.], India K001152874
    Murata, G. [T-17786], Thailand K001153363
    Seemann, B.C. [80] K001160872
    Francis, W.D. [s.n.], Australia K001154185
    Everist, S.L. [5127], Australia K001154192
    Everist, S.L. [5129], Australia K001154193
    Buchholz, J.T. [1044], New Caledonia K001155427
    Eggers, H.F.A. von [101] K001161210
    Levine, C.O. [375], China K001152562
    Wight, A.E. [125], Bahamas K001161207
    Kanai, H. [s.n.], Nepal K001152968
    Wallnöfer, B. [9635], Guatemala K001160865
    Novelo, A. [158], Mexico K000063975
    Sibil, J. [300], Malaysia K001153573
    Sibil, J. [111], Malaysia K001153618
    Sibil, J. [81], Malaysia K001153619
    Sibil, J. [175], Malaysia K001153620
    Sibil, J. [226], Malaysia K001153621
    Englesing, F.C. [114], Nicaragua K001160871
    Yapp, R.H. [148], Malaysia K001153280
    Bünnemeijer, H.A.B. [5984], Indonesia K001153586
    Schiffner, V. [2514], Indonesia K001153546
    Borssum Waalkes, J. v. [1608], Indonesia K001153545
    Prawiroatmodjo, S. [79], Indonesia K001153595
    Morley, R.J. [12], Indonesia K001153542
    Moi, W. [NGF25972], Papua New Guinea K001153791
    Valeur, E.J. [607], Dominican Republic K001161202
    Perkins, J.R. [1324], Jamaica K001161186
    Thurn, E.F. im [273], Fiji K001155493
    Thurn, E.F. im [273], Fiji K001155494
    Borssum Waalkes, J. van [2947], Indonesia K001153551
    Pendry, C. [70910], Dominica K001161200
    Rahim, A. [101785], Malaysia K001153634
    Rahim, A. [59821], Malaysia K001153649
    Clute, W.N. [32], Jamaica K001161187
    Mauriasi, R. [11209], Solomon Is. K001155355
    Cramer, L.H. [4430], Sri Lanka K001152996
    Waas, S. [439], Sri Lanka K001153003
    Hara, H. [6303540], Nepal K001152970
    Fernandes, J. [1735], India K001152983
    Fernandes, J. [1332], India K001152984
    Fernandes, J. [1377], India K001152985
    Fernandes, J. [1098], India K001152986
    Fernandes, J. [1134], India K001152987
    Vogel de [6451], Indonesia K001153672
    Rahim [100192], Malaysia K001153576
    Rumutom, M. [234], Malaysia K001153569
    Nana [7281], India K001152960
    Lee, Y.F. [96786], Malaysia K001153623
    Moriarty, V.K. [1094], Australia K001154195
    Keenan, J. [1281], Myanmar K001152989
    Blicher-Mathiesen, U. [44], Malaysia K001153565
    Herbst, D. [9360], Solomon Is. K001155350
    Herbst, D. [9371], Solomon Is. K001155351
    Boyland, D.E. [361], Australia K001154194
    Hamilton, M.A. [MH 179], Montserrat K000703050
    Yuncker, T.G. [5560], Honduras K001160866
    Tadong, D. [443], Malaysia K001153578
    Tadong, D. [39], Malaysia K001153616
    Tadong, D. [297], Malaysia K001153642
    Tadong, D. [117], Malaysia K001153645
    Tadong, D. [594], Malaysia K001153646
    Tadong, D. [541], Malaysia K001153648
    Tadong, D. [284], Malaysia K001153657
    Tadong, D. [186], Malaysia K001153666
    Sambuling, S. [192], Malaysia K001153570
    Sambuling, S. [710], Malaysia K001153572
    Sambuling, S. [43], Malaysia K001153622
    Sambuling, S. [478], Malaysia K001153667
    Phengklai, C. [4082], Thailand K001153361
    Carey [179] K001170388
    Kloss, C.B. [3990], Thailand K001153287
    Kloss, C.B. [s.n.], Thailand K001153288
    Elmer, A.D.E. [20283], Malaysia K001153638
    Cuming [2422], Singapore K001153297
    Rahman, M.A. [4604], Bangladesh K001152861
    Rahman, M.A. [s.n.], Bangladesh K001152976
    Roxburgh, R. [s.n.], India K001152875
    Kerr, A.F.G. [15820], Thailand K001153351
    Kerr, A.F.G. [1801], Thailand K001153353
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3956], Thailand K001153357
    Schneider, C.K. [2545], China K001152566
    Tadong, L. [169], Malaysia K001153656
    Saikah [82327], Malaysia K001153607
    Bhargawa, N. [6318], India K001152954
    Gafui, I. [14730], Solomon Is. K001155352
    Gafui, I. [14730], Solomon Is. K001155353
    Purseglove, J.W. [P4260], Malaysia K001153285
    Purseglove, J.W. [P4120], Malaysia K001153286
    Purseglove, J.W. [P4640], Malaysia K001153609
    Purseglove, J.W. [P.6084], Trinidad & Tobago K001161174
    Purseglove, J.W. [P. 6365], Trinidad & Tobago K001161175
    Purseglove, J.W. [P.6025], Trinidad & Tobago K001161178
    s.coll [536], Hong Kong K001152567
    s.coll [s.n.] K001152572
    s.coll [s.n.] K001152871
    s.coll [s.n.], India K001152876
    s.coll [58], India K001152878
    s.coll [C.N.501], India K001152963
    s.coll [s.n.], India K001152974
    s.coll [561], Myanmar K001152994
    s.coll [s.n.] K001153279
    s.coll [2422] K001153283
    s.coll [s.n.], Malaysia K001153289
    s.coll [s.n.], Singapore K001153295
    s.coll [12383], Singapore K001153298
    s.coll [s.n.], Singapore K001153300
    s.coll [B746], Vietnam K001153350
    s.coll [11], Thailand K001153364
    s.coll [s.n.], Indonesia K001153553
    s.coll [30132B], Indonesia K001153561
    s.coll [3571] K001153632
    s.coll [38022], Malaysia K001153676
    s.coll [s.n.], New Caledonia K001155422
    s.coll [29339], New Caledonia K001155428
    s.coll [134], Tonga K001155537
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170384
    s.coll [2627G] K001170386
    s.coll [2627] K001170390
    s.coll [DEI BOT 107], India K001170392
    s.coll [191] K001160880
    s.coll [737], Jamaica K001161184
    s.coll [s.n.], Jamaica K001161185
    s.coll [s.n.], Dominican Republic K001161193
    s.coll [s.n.], Guadeloupe K001161197
    s.coll [60], Dominica K001161198
    s.coll [s.n.], Dominica K001161201
    s.coll [s.n.], St. Vincent & the Grenadines K001161204
    s.coll [s.n.] K001161208
    s.coll [88] K001166266
    Comanor, P.L. [1082], Sri Lanka K001152853
    Comanor, P.L. [922], Sri Lanka K001152855
    Kessler [988], Indonesia K001153589
    Kessler [PK1641], Indonesia K001153590
    Kessler [PK1475], Indonesia K001153591
    Kumin [117185], Malaysia K001153575
    Othman [S46129], Malaysia K001153563
    Koorders [29404ß], Indonesia K001153558
    Nand, S. [10627], Fiji K001155496
    Kadir [A1683], Malaysia K001153600
    Kadir [A564], Malaysia K001153624
    Kadir [A3544], Malaysia K001153627
    Kadir [A3591], Malaysia K001153636
    Bell [6085], India K001152881
    Maesen, L.J.G. van der [2702], India K001152873
    Surunda, Y. [20], Malaysia K001153644
    Keke [1234], Nepal K001152969
    Tanaki Ammal, E.K. [s.n.], Nepal K001152958
    Kere, F. [5048], Solomon Is. K001155354
    Bois, D. [475], China K001153347
    Williams [8223], Nepal K001152962
    Gardner [629], Sri Lanka K001153552
    Akogo, M. [49], Cameroon K000541984
    Migeod, F. W. H. [241], Cameroon K000028591
    Brunt, M.A. [287], Cameroon K000028604
    Brunt, M.A. [287], Cameroon K000028605
    Ngomba, J.N. [5], Cameroon K000028582
    Bakia, K. [3], Malaysia K001153663
    Cheng, S.K. [CL1122], Cambodia K001153349
    Noorudin [6707], Malaysia K001153650
    Batjeledik, J. [s.n.], Indonesia K001153669
    Ichaso, C.L. [6399], Brazil K001058847
    Kami, E. [4288], Congo K000615802
    Conn [452] K001153805
    Conn [451] K001153806
    McDonald [4843], Indonesia K001153679
    Banyeng [S57507], Malaysia K001153566
    Aban [79442], Malaysia K001153610
    Sigin [99674], Malaysia K001153652
    Ambriansyah [AA1680], Indonesia K001153587
    Ambriansyah [AA1680], Indonesia K001153588
    Yii [S51231], Malaysia K001153604
    Shiu Ying Hu [5711], Hong Kong K001152568
    Shiu Ying Hu [5728], Hong Kong K001152569
    Shiu Ying Hu [12785], Hong Kong K001152570
    Shiu Ying Hu [12358], Hong Kong K001152571
    Ramlanto [61], Indonesia K001153594
    Herb Maingay, A.C. [1777], Malaysia K001153281
    Eja, M. [S56332], Malaysia K001153564
    Hoed, G. den [962], Vietnam K001153359
    Bakia, A. [79], Malaysia K001153574
    Kostermans [23178], Sri Lanka K001153002
    Kostermans [19055], Indonesia K001153668
    Amin [93922], Malaysia K001153577
    Amin [123144], Malaysia K001153614
    Amin [109791], Malaysia K001153658
    Amin [60038], Malaysia K001153662
    Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] K001170383
    Herb Wight, R. [s.n.] K001170387
    Du, Y. [SCSB-B-000047], China K001152542
    Cho, K.S. [78074], China K001152565
    Herb Haines, H.H. [146], India K001152955
    Marriott, M.V. [86], India K001152959
    Banerjee, R.N. [s.n.], India K001152863
    Banerjee, R.N. [18621], India K001152966
    Rao, N.K. [74], India K001152869
    Ramanandan, P. [4847], India K001152956
    Rajendran [12625] K001152961
    Krishna, B. [1627], India K001152965
    Sikdar, J.K. [36], India K001152967
    Greener [s.n.] K001152998
    Ridley, J.N. [12383], Singapore K001153299
    Amin, R.A.A. [102720], Malaysia K001153568
    Moh. Enoh. [294], Indonesia K001153585
    Haslani, M. [WKM360], Brunei K001153596
    Nordin Abas, A. [84217], Malaysia K001153606
    Kalantas, A. [89336], Malaysia K001153651
    Ratin [117135], Malaysia K001153661
    Simbayan, T. [44], Malaysia K001153665
    Wabo, D. [LAE73231], Papua New Guinea K001153812
    Herb. Gay, J. [s.n.] K001161194
    Forster, P.I.F. [PIF13992], Australia K001154189
    White, C.J. [s.n.], Australia K001154191
    Smith, A.F. [210], Fiji K001155491
    Sheikh Ali [10703], Fiji K001155495
    Marks, M. [SO2], Nigeria K001170381
    Marks, M. [SO2], Nigeria K001170382
    Peredo, L.C. [LCP70], Mexico K001160863
    Peredo, L.C. [LCP65], Mexico K001160864
    Wolf, G.P. de [138], Costa Rica K001160874
    Holliday, P. [15091], Trinidad & Tobago K001161176
    Herb. Pursh [s.n.] K001161199
    Debeaux, J.-.O. [s.n.], Martinique K001161206
    Jul 1, 2015 Jacobs, M. [7056], Malaysia Solanum pseudosaponaceum K001153687
    Jul 1, 2015 Jacobs, M. [7797], Malaysia Solanum pseudosaponaceum K001153688
    Jul 1, 2015 Henry, A. [259], Taiwan Solanum pseudosaponaceum K000788297
    Jul 1, 2015 Tsang, W.T. [811], China Solanum pseudosaponaceum K000788298
    Jul 1, 2015 Tsang, W.T. [409], China Solanum pseudosaponaceum K000788299
    Jul 1, 2015 Merrill, E.D. [4807], Philippines Solanum pseudosaponaceum K000195913 isotype
    Jul 1, 2015 Lau, S.K. [157], China Solanum pseudosaponaceum K000788296
    Jul 1, 2015 Elmer, A. D. E. [6204], Philippines Solanum pseudosaponaceum K000196045
    Jul 1, 2015 Sulit, M.D. [16790], Philippines Solanum pseudosaponaceum K000195912
    Jul 1, 2015 Conklin, H.C. [217], Philippines Solanum pseudosaponaceum K000195914
    Jul 1, 2015 Liang, H.Y. [62400], China Solanum pseudosaponaceum K000788295
    Jul 1, 2015 Liang, H.Y. [61698], China Solanum pseudosaponaceum K000788300
    Jul 1, 2015 Ramos, M. [40197], Philippines Solanum pseudosaponaceum K000195911
    Jul 1, 2015 Tawada, S. [s.n.], Japan Solanum pseudosaponaceum K000788294

    Bibliography

    First published in Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ.: 47 (1788)

    Accepted by

    • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.

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    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Liogier, A.H. (1994). Flora de la Española 6: 1-517. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.

    Sources

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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0