1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum tuberosum L.

        Potato is a member of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), which also includes tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), aubergine or eggplant (S. melongena), chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) and petunias (Petunia species).

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    Potato is a member of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), which also includes tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), aubergine or eggplant (S. melongena), chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) and petunias (Petunia species).

    Considered to be the fourth most important food crop (after wheat, maize and rice), potato is cultivated in temperate and subtropical regions across the world.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Solanum tuberosum is thought to have originated in the Andes of South America. It was probably first domesticated in the Lake Titicaca region of Peru and Bolivia between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago.

    It is widespread in cultivation, with major producers including China, Russia, Poland, the USA, Ukraine, Germany and India.

    Overview: An erect, perennial, aromatic herb up to 1 m tall. Sparsely hairy, with tuber-bearing underground stolons (vegetative shoots). Stems erect, succulent, winged, branching.

    Leaves: Divided into 3-5 pairs of leaflets.

    Flowers: White to pink, purple or blue, about 2.5 cm in diameter with yellow anthers. Borne in a many-flowered, axillary inflorescence. Each flower is borne on a flower stalk (pedicel) 2-3 cm long.

    Fruits: A succulent (but inedible), spherical, yellow-green to purple berry, up to 4 cm in diameter.

    Thousands of cultivars are available, which vary in characters such as tuber size, shape and skin colour.

    Uses

    Potatoes are a major staple and have a prominent place in many national cuisines. They are an almost complete foodstuff, providing all the essential nutrients, with the exception of calcium and vitamins A and D (which can be obtained by consuming them with milk).

    Potatoes are a good source of carbohydrate and vitamin C and provide about 25% of the vitamin C in the European diet.

    The diverse and adaptable tubers are boiled, roasted, baked, fried and steamed as a vegetable. Potatoes are a key ingredient in many soups, stews, pies and other oven-baked dishes.

    They are processed into a diverse range of foodstuffs including chips (French fries), crisps (chips), potato bread (such as boxty), potato flour and dried potato. They are a common source of starch, glucose and dextrin.

    Potatoes have long been frozen, soaked and dried to form a product known as chuño, which has played an important role in the diet of the population of the highland and lowland Andes of South America.

    Potatoes are used to produce alcoholic beverages including vodka and schnapps. They are also used as animal feed.

    All green parts of the plant, including tubers, that have been exposed to light contain poisonous glycoalkaloids (solanines), so tubers with green patches should not be eaten. Overconsumption of solanine by pregnant women is alleged to promote spina bifida in babies.

    This species at Kew

    Dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of Solanum tuberosum are held in Kew's Herbarium where they are available to researchers by appointment. Details of some of these specimens can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

    Models of various potatoes, samples of potato starch, dextrin, tubers, potato flour, fruits, rice paper made with potato flour, and non-perishable food made from tubers are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

    Distribution
    Bolivia, Peru
    Ecology
    Montane (highlands).
    Conservation
    Not considered to be threatened; widespread in cultivation.
    Hazards

    Potatoes contain toxic compounds including solanine, although levels of this are low in commercial varieties and poisoning is rare.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: ? Cult in Europe, “Habitat in Peru”, Herb. Linnaeus 248.12 (LINN!, lecto, designated by Hawkes in Proc. Linn. Soc. London 166: 106 (1956)) [see also Knapp & Jarvis in J.L.S. 104: 358, f. 25 (1990) & Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 862 (2007)]
    General
    Perennial herb, procumbent, creeping or sprawling to 1 m in height with long tuberiferous stolons; tubers extremely variable in colour and shape, small to large; branches spreading or ascending, often flexuous, stems angular or winged, pilose with simple, appressed, eglandular occasionally glandular hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 8–28 × 6.5–16 cm, rachides 6–10 cm long, with 3–5 alternate or opposite primary leaflets, ovate to lanceolate and decreasing in size towards the base, 3–6(–10) × 2–4(–7) cm, bases cuneate, entire, apices acute, often oblique, terminal often larger and sessile, usually alternating with small sessile interstitial leaflets 0.4–3 × 0.3–2 mm; surfaces pilose with eglandular hairs, denser below; petioles (and rhachides) often angular or narrowly winged, 2–4(–12) cm long, petiolules absent to 2 mm
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal becoming lateral with sympodial growth continued by axillary branches, forked cymose panicles, 7–18(–30)-flowered; peduncles 6–12 cm long; pedicels usually erect in flower and in fruit, 1.6–2 cm long, articulated above the middle; axes pilose/villous with long eglandular hairs, dense around point of pedicel articulation
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate/stellate, 6–7 mm long, pilose/villous externally with scattered long eglandular hairs; lobes broadly triangular tapering narrowly above, 3–9 × 2–3 mm, acute
    Corolla
    Corolla white, blue or violet, often with white radial stripes between the lobes and greenish-yellow basal star, rotate to rotatepentagonal, 1.8–3.5 cm diameter, tube 1.8–2 mm long; lobes broadly triangular, 3–5 × 3–5 mm, tips pubescent, glabrous internally
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; filaments free for 1–2.2 mm, glabrous; anthers yellow to brown, 4–6.2(–8.5) × 1.1–3 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary 2.2–4 × 1.8–3.5 mm, glabrous, usually bilocular; style straight, sometimes twisted or sigmoidal, 6.5–13 × 0.2–0.4(–0.8) mm, glabrous above, minutely papillate below, exserted to 3 mm; stigma capitate to clasping, 0.5–1 × 0.5–1.3 mm
    Fruits
    Fruit green, globose to ovoid berries, 1–2(–4) cm diameter, glabrous and smooth, rarely produced in cultivation
    Seeds
    Seeds up to 500, ovoid to elliptic-ovoid, ± 2 × 1.7–2.4 mm, flattened, often covered with the remnants of strands of thickening appearing as pseudo-hairs; sclerotic granules absent.
    Ecology
    Commonly cultivated in gardens and vegetable plots, but rarely collected; 1650–1950 m
    Note
    The potato is probably the best-known and economically important member of the Solanaceae ranking among the top five of the world’s most important crop species. It is indigenous to the Andes of Peru, Chile, Bolivia and adjacent parts of South America, with Hawkes (1991) suggesting that its cultivation probably originated in northern Bolivia. The potato was introduced to Europe by the Spaniards in the 1570s, and is commonly known as the White, European or Irish potato. Widely cultivated for its edible tubers or potatoes in temperate and tropical mountain regions both throughout Africa and world, it was introduced into East Africa approximately 100 years ago, though West African introductions occurred much later - after the Second World War. Correll (1962), however cited evidence that potatoes were grown in South Africa in 1833; he thought this may have indicated that some representatives of section Tuberarium (Dunal) Bitter occurred naturally in Africa, suggesting that an indigenous species might occur there possibly due to Continental Drift. Jaeger (1985) considered this highly unlikely, stating that no close relatives of section Petota are indigenous in Africa. Despite its widespread use as an important vegetable throughout these regions, very few herbarium specimens of this species have been collected. Though frequently planted, this species is rarely naturalised. References to the vast literature dealing with the origins, distribution, inter-relationships with wild species and the cultivars of this tetraploid species may be found in Correll (1962) and Hawkes & Hjerting (1969), while a summary of the evolution and domestication of the potato is given in Hawkes (1991). Mansfeld (2001) similarly gives relevant references to the two subspecies commonly recognized in this species: subsp. tuberosum and subsp. andigena (Juz. & Buk.) Hawkes together with their differentiating features, origins and probable current distribution ranges. The vegetative parts and immature berries of this species contain high glycoalkaloid contents, resulting in ‘green’ potatoes being commonly regarded as poisonous.
    Distribution
    Range: Europe, Middle East, India, China, Australia and New Guinea, N, C and S America, sometimes occurring as an escape Range: Cultivated in Ghana, Cameroon, Somalia, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, South Africa Flora districts: K4
    [KSP]
    Use
    Food and drink, fodder.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela

    Introduced into:

    Dominican Republic, Haiti, Illinois, Uzbekistan

    Common Names

    English
    Potato

    Solanum tuberosum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2010 Alston, A.H.G. [0546] K000658017 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 Alston, A.H.G. [0546] K000658018 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 Alston, A.H.G. [0546] K000658174 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Balls, E.K. [6988] K000658006 syntype
    Jan 1, 2010 Balls, E.K. [6941] K000658007 lectotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Balls, E.K. [6955] K000658010 syntype
    Jan 1, 2010 Balls, E.K. [s.n.] K000658011 syntype
    Jan 1, 2010 Balls, E.K. [6510] K000658019 lectotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Balls, E.K. [s.n.] K000658020 neotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Hawkes, J.G. [1009a] K000658024 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 Hawkes, J.G. [1227 or 1253] K000658028 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 Hawkes, J.G. [1162 or 1175] K000658029 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 Hawkes, J.G. [1328] K000658030 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 Hawkes, J.G. [1328] K000658031 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 Hawkes, J.G. [1260] K000658032 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 Hawkes, J.G. [1260] K000658033 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 Hawkes, J.G. [s.n.] K000658042 isoneotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Yabar, L.A. [44] K000658002 lectotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Yabar, L.A. [25] K000658003 lectotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Yabar, L.A. [44] K000658005 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 Juzepczuk, S.V. [1654] K000658022 isotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Juzepczuk, S.V. [598], Russian Federation K000658023 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 Juzepczuk, S.V. [1438] K000658026 neotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Juzepczuk, S.V. [1170 or 1284] K000658027 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 Juzepczuk, S.V. [598] K000658096 isotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Juzepczuk, S.V. [598] K000658097 isotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Juzepczuk, S.V. [598] K000658098 isotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Juzepczuk, S.V. [598] K000658099 isotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Juzepczuk, S.V. [1001] K000658176 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Juzepczuk, S.V. [1010] K000658177 syntype
    Jan 1, 2010 s.coll. [979] K000658012 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 s.coll. [s.n.] K000658021 lectotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Yabar, L.A, [27] K000658004 syntype
    Jan 1, 2010 Soukup [s.n.] K000658009 lectotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Vallejos, P.S. [s.n.] K000658041 neotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Ascásabi, L. [7243] K000658013 lectotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Ascásabi, L. [7243] K000658014 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 2010 Ascásabi, L. [7243] K000658015 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 1961 Alston, A.H.G. [0546] K000658016 lectotype
    3458.000
    40820.000
    Meikle, R.D. 28984.000
    Polhill, R. [EA12425], Kenya K001170418
    Polhill, R. [12425], Kenya K001170419
    Baker [s.n.] K001170505
    Ujor, E. [FHI30070], Nigeria K001170399
    Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170426
    Dawe, M.T. [346], Colombia K001166316
    Griffith [s.n.] K001153212
    Simpson, N.D. [4960], Egypt K001170431
    Simpson, N.D. [4960], Egypt K001170432
    Krapovickas, A. [C69-1454/21], Argentina K000005648
    Henry [845], China K001152512
    Matthew, K.M. [46584], India K001153213
    Matthew, K.M. [RHT46584], India K001170434
    Mc Kee [20681], New Caledonia K001155429
    Duthie, J.F. [s.n.] K001153219
    Duthie, J.F. [s.n.], Maldives K001153220
    Henry, A. [9476], China K001152509
    Maximowicz [s.n.], Japan K001152514
    Ekman, E.L. [H10019], Haiti K001170433
    Omar, S. [981], Iraq K001170437
    Drummond, J.R. [25866], India K001153216
    Pawek, J. [13337], Malawi K001158862
    Pawek, J. [12286], Malawi K001158863
    Anderson, J. [s.n.], China K001152513
    McLean [s.n.], Peru K001166374
    McLean [s.n.], Peru K001166377
    Licent, E. [6820], China K001152510
    Licent, E. [6821], China K001152511
    Cascante, A. [754], Costa Rica K001160905
    Hjerting, J.P. [6213], Argentina K000005651
    Walton, H.J. [s.n.] K001153211
    Willmott, E.A. [s.n.], Côte d'Ivoire K001170442
    Correll, D.S. [C20], Chile K000005685
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 586], Great Britain K000914631
    Diem, J. [1650], Denmark K001170409
    Pallas [s.n.] K001170444
    Henderson, G. [s.n.] K001170507
    Mwangangi, O. [1956], Kenya K001170417
    s.coll [s.n.] K000005684
    s.coll [s.n.] K000005687
    s.coll [s.n.], Sweden K000440567
    s.coll [40] K000440568
    s.coll [s.n.], India K001153215
    s.coll [20681], New Caledonia K001155430
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170400
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170401
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170402
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170403
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170404
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170405
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170406
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170407
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170408
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170410
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170411
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170412
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170413
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170414
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170415
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170416
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170425
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170427
    s.coll [115], Austria K001170429
    s.coll [1171/3359] K001170435 lectotype
    s.coll [s.n.], Germany K001170439
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170440
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170441
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170503
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170504
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170506
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170508
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170509
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170510
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170511
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170512
    s.coll [s.n.], Peru K001166315
    s.coll [s.n.] K001166319
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001166375
    s.coll [H1936-13], Colombia K001166376
    Bangerter, E.B. [5550], New Zealand K001155314
    ulloa, C. [1091], Ecuador K001171648
    Last, G.V.C. [517/10], United Kingdom K001170513
    Nafday, K.U.R. [167] K001153221
    Stordy, R.J. [s.n.], Peru K001166317
    Herb Falconer [s.n.] K001153217
    Herb Rottlerianum [s.n.], India K001153218
    Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] K001170443
    Muniez-Rothkugel, A. [225], Argentina K000005683
    Greene, S.W. [3176], South Georgia & the South Sandwich Is. K000005686
    Hb. Royle [s.n.], India K001153214
    Plank, J.E. v.d. [s.n.] K001171570
    Sutton [1910], United Kingdom K001170428
    Baher, J.G. [s.n.] K001170420
    Baher, J.G. [s.n.] K001170421
    Baher, J.G. [s.n.] K001170422
    Baher, J.G. [s.n.] K001170423
    Baher, J.G. [s.n.] K001170424
    Herb Brotero [s.n.], Portugal K001170430
    Jenan [890], Iraq K001170436
    Plank, G.L. van der [BP174] K001170438
    Gourlay, W.B. [s.n.] Solanum andigenum K001168317
    Balls, E.K. [6855a], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168123
    Balls, E.K. [6292] Solanum andigenum K001168165
    Balls, E.K. [6251] Solanum andigenum K001168169
    Balls, E.K. [6291] Solanum andigenum K001168175
    Balls, E.K. [6290] Solanum andigenum K001168178
    Balls, E.K. [6288] Solanum andigenum K001168181
    Balls, E.K. [6338] Solanum andigenum K001168188
    Balls, E.K. [5897] Solanum andigenum K001168191
    Balls, E.K. [5897] Solanum andigenum K001168192
    Balls, E.K. [6163] Solanum andigenum K001168194
    Balls, E.K. [5896] Solanum andigenum K001168195
    Balls, E.K. [6334] Solanum andigenum K001168198
    Balls, E.K. [6328] Solanum andigenum K001168202
    Balls, E.K. [5897], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001168203
    Balls, E.K. [6351] Solanum andigenum K001168204
    Balls, E.K. [6333], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001168205
    Balls, E.K. [6327] Solanum andigenum K001168206
    Balls, E.K. [6325], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001168207
    Balls, E.K. [6221] Solanum andigenum K001168210
    Balls, E.K. [6327] Solanum andigenum K001168230
    Balls, E.K. [7388] Solanum andigenum K001168231
    Balls, E.K. [7387] Solanum andigenum K001168232
    Balls, E.K. [7387] Solanum andigenum K001168233
    Balls, E.K. [7387] Solanum andigenum K001168234
    Balls, E.K. [7385] Solanum andigenum K001168235
    Balls, E.K. [7385] Solanum andigenum K001168236
    Balls, E.K. [7385], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168237
    Balls, E.K. [7384] Solanum andigenum K001168238
    Balls, E.K. [7384] Solanum andigenum K001168239
    Balls, E.K. [7383] Solanum andigenum K001168240
    Balls, E.K. [7381] Solanum andigenum K001168241
    Balls, E.K. [7374], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168242
    Balls, E.K. [7374], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168243
    Balls, E.K. [7379] Solanum andigenum K001168244
    Balls, E.K. [7493], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168245
    Balls, E.K. [7492], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168246
    Balls, E.K. [7488], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168247
    Balls, E.K. [7486], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168248
    Balls, E.K. [7391] Solanum andigenum K001168249
    Balls, E.K. [7390] Solanum andigenum K001168251
    Balls, E.K. [7389] Solanum andigenum K001168252
    Balls, E.K. [7389] Solanum andigenum K001168253
    Balls, E.K. [7389] Solanum andigenum K001168254
    Balls, E.K. [7388] Solanum andigenum K001168255
    Balls, E.K. [7450], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001168256
    Balls, E.K. [7426], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168258
    Balls, E.K. [7426], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168259
    Balls, E.K. [7426] Solanum andigenum K001168260
    Balls, E.K. [7422] Solanum andigenum K001168261
    Balls, E.K. [7422] Solanum andigenum K001168262
    Balls, E.K. [B7422] Solanum andigenum K001168263
    Balls, E.K. [7411] Solanum andigenum K001168264
    Balls, E.K. [7410] Solanum andigenum K001168265
    Balls, E.K. [7398] Solanum andigenum K001168266
    Balls, E.K. [7392] Solanum andigenum K001168267
    Balls, E.K. [7392] Solanum andigenum K001168268
    Balls, E.K. [7578], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168269
    Balls, E.K. [7553], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168270
    Balls, E.K. [7457] Solanum andigenum K001168271
    Balls, E.K. [7457], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001168272
    Balls, E.K. [7455] Solanum andigenum K001168274
    Balls, E.K. [7454] Solanum andigenum K001168275
    Balls, E.K. [7453], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001168276
    Balls, E.K. [7450] Solanum andigenum K001168277
    Balls, E.K. [7450], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001168278
    Balls, E.K. [7450] Solanum andigenum K001168279
    Balls, E.K. [7066], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168285
    Balls, E.K. [6996A], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168295
    Balls, E.K. [6993], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168296
    Balls, E.K. [6990], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168297
    Balls, E.K. [6987], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168298
    Balls, E.K. [6983A], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168299
    Balls, E.K. [6976], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168300
    Balls, E.K. [6971], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168301
    Balls, E.K. [6971], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168302
    Balls, E.K. [6968], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168303
    Balls, E.K. [6967], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168304
    Balls, E.K. [6964], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168305
    Balls, E.K. [6964], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168306
    Balls, E.K. [6964], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168307
    Balls, E.K. [6992], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168308
    Balls, E.K. [6992], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168309
    Balls, E.K. [6992], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168310
    Balls, E.K. [6981], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168311
    Balls, E.K. [6981], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168312
    Balls, E.K. [6966], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168313
    Balls, E.K. [6966], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168314
    Balls, E.K. [7001], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168315
    Balls, E.K. [7001], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168316
    Balls, E.K. [7069], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168318
    Balls, E.K. [7069], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168319
    Balls, E.K. [B6345], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001162743
    Balls, E.K. [B6338], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001162744
    Balls, E.K. [B6334], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001162745
    Balls, E.K. [B6330], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001162746
    Balls, E.K. [B6328], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001162747
    Hawkes, J.G. [s.n.], Russian Federation Solanum andigenum K000658025
    Hawkes, J.G. [s.n.], Russian Federation Solanum andigenum K000658034
    Hawkes, J.G. [s.n.], Russian Federation Solanum andigenum K000658035
    Hawkes, J.G. [s.n.], Russian Federation Solanum andigenum K000658036
    Hawkes, J.G. [s.n.], Russian Federation Solanum andigenum K000658037
    Hawkes, J.G. [s.n.], Russian Federation Solanum andigenum K000658038
    Hawkes, J.G. [s.n.], Russian Federation Solanum andigenum K000658039
    Hawkes, J.G. [s.n.], Russian Federation Solanum andigenum K000658040
    Hawkes, J.G. [7448] Solanum andigenum K001168257
    Hawkes, J.G. [4335], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001171030
    Hawkes, J.G. [4335], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001171031
    Hawkes, J.G. [5222], Peru Solanum andigenum K001162739
    Hawkes, J.G. [5222], Peru Solanum andigenum K001162740
    Hawkes, J.G. [354], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001162748
    Hawkes, J.G. [358], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001162749
    Hawkes, J.G. [JGH482], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001162750
    Hawkes, J.G. [JGH173], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001162751
    Hawkes, J.G. [JGH172], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001162752
    Hawkes, J.G. [JGH171], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001162753
    Hawkes, J.G. [JGH170], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001162754
    Hawkes, J.G. [JGH157], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001162755
    Hawkes, J.G. [JGH151], Colombia Solanum andigenum K001162756
    Balls [6958B], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168100
    Balls [6958A], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168101
    Balls [6950], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168102
    Balls [6950], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168103
    Balls [6872], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168118
    Balls [6869], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168119
    Balls [6867], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168120
    Balls [6866], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168121
    Balls [6860], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168122
    Balls [6855a], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168124
    Balls [6919], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168138
    Balls [6918B], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168139
    Balls [6918A], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168140
    Balls [6914], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168141
    Balls [6913], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168142
    Balls [6890], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168143
    Balls [6889], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168144
    Balls [6880], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168145
    Balls [6292] Solanum andigenum K001168166
    Balls [6292] Solanum andigenum K001168167
    Balls [6292], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168168
    Balls [6307], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168173
    Balls [6301], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168174
    Balls [6291] Solanum andigenum K001168176
    Balls [6291], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168177
    Balls [6290] Solanum andigenum K001168179
    Balls [6290], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168180
    Balls [6288] Solanum andigenum K001168182
    Balls [6288] Solanum andigenum K001168183
    Balls [6288] Solanum andigenum K001168184
    Balls [6196], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168185
    Balls [6303], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168186
    Balls [6338] Solanum andigenum K001168187
    Balls [6342], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168189
    Balls [6342], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168190
    Balls [6133], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001168193
    Balls [5896], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168196
    Balls [6338], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168197
    Balls [6333], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168199
    Balls [6328], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168201
    Balls [6251] Solanum andigenum K001168208
    Balls [6251], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168209
    Balls [6221] Solanum andigenum K001168211
    Balls [6221] Solanum andigenum K001168212
    Balls [6221], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168213
    Balls [6221] Solanum andigenum K001168214
    Balls [6541], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168215
    Balls [6540], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168216
    Balls [6512], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168217
    Balls [6508], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168218
    Balls [6495], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168219
    Balls [6450], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168220
    Balls [6441], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168221
    Balls [6424], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168222
    Balls [6424], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168223
    Balls [6354], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168224
    Balls [6354], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168225
    Balls [6345] Solanum andigenum K001168226
    Balls [6345], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168227
    Balls [6327] Solanum andigenum K001168228
    Balls [6327], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168229
    Ochoa, C. [S-31], USA Solanum andigenum K001168146
    Ochoa, C. [S-100], USA Solanum andigenum K001168281
    Ochoa, C. [S-100], USA Solanum andigenum K001168282
    Ochoa, C. [S-100], USA Solanum andigenum K001168283
    Ochoa, C. [S-100], USA Solanum andigenum K001168284
    Cárdenas, M. [s.n.], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001162741
    Cárdenas, M. [s.n.], Bolivia Solanum andigenum K001162742
    s.coll [58], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168090
    s.coll [1518], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168091
    s.coll [57], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168092
    s.coll [56], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168093
    s.coll [55], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168094
    s.coll [53], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168095
    s.coll [53], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168096
    s.coll [52B], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168097
    s.coll [52A], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168098
    s.coll [422b], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168099
    s.coll [42], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168104
    s.coll [41], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168105
    s.coll [38], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168106
    s.coll [37D], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168107
    s.coll [37D], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168108
    s.coll [37B], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168109
    s.coll [37B], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168110
    s.coll [37A], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168111
    s.coll [35], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168112
    s.coll [34B], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168113
    s.coll [34A], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168114
    s.coll [32b], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168115
    s.coll [31], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168116
    s.coll [28], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168117
    s.coll [63B], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168125
    s.coll [63A], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168126
    s.coll [63A], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168127
    s.coll [60], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168128
    s.coll [60], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168129
    s.coll [59], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168130
    s.coll [5], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168131
    s.coll [4], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168132
    s.coll [4], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168133
    s.coll [3], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168134
    s.coll [3], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168135
    s.coll [3], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168136
    s.coll [1], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168137
    s.coll [27], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168147
    s.coll [27], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168148
    s.coll [25], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168149
    s.coll [24], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168150
    s.coll [24], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168151
    s.coll [20], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168152
    s.coll [19], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168153
    s.coll [17], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168154
    s.coll [17], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168155
    s.coll [15], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168156
    s.coll [13], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168157
    s.coll [13], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168158
    s.coll [12], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168159
    s.coll [11], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168160
    s.coll [10], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168161
    s.coll [10], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168162
    s.coll [10], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168163
    s.coll [8], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168164
    s.coll [37], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168170
    s.coll [37], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168171
    s.coll [39], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168172
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum andigenum K001168200
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum andigenum K001168250
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum andigenum K001168273
    Plank, J.E. v.d. [501], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168060
    Plank, J.E. v.d. [140] Solanum andigenum K001168061
    Plank, J.E. v.d. [316] Solanum andigenum K001168062
    Plank, J.E. v.d. [1094] Solanum andigenum K001168320
    Plank, J.E. v.d. [595] Solanum andigenum K001168321
    Plank, J.E. v.d. [588] Solanum andigenum K001168322
    Plank, J.E. v.d. [1407] Solanum andigenum K001168323
    John Innes Institute [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168280
    Peru Min Agr [51B], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168286
    Peru Min Agr [49], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168287
    Peru Min Agr [47B], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168288
    Peru Min Agr [46A], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168289
    Peru Min Agr [46A], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168290
    Peru Min Agr [43B], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168291
    Peru Min Agr [43B], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168292
    Peru Min Agr [43], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168293
    Harland, S.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum andigenum K001168294
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum subandigenum K001171462
    Brücher, H. [1210], Argentina Solanum tascalense K000005496
    López, L. [s.n.], Colombia Solanum estradea K001163885
    Balls [7394], Colombia Solanum rybinii K001165604
    Hjerting, J.P. [s.n.], Denmark Solanum rybinii K001171394
    Hjerting, J.P. [s.n.], Denmark Solanum rybinii K001171395
    Balls, E.K. [6988], United Kingdom Solanum yabari K001166603
    s.coll [6941], United Kingdom Solanum coeruleiflorum K001163586
    Balls, E.K. [CPC1066] Solanum chaucha K001168659
    Balls, E.K. [CPC402] Solanum chaucha K001168660
    Balls, E.K. [6753], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168775
    Balls, E.K. [6751], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168776
    Balls, E.K. [6505], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168780
    Balls, E.K. [6405], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168782
    Balls, E.K. [6353] Solanum chaucha K001168784
    Balls, E.K. [6352] Solanum chaucha K001168786
    Balls, E.K. [B.6350] Solanum chaucha K001168787
    Balls, E.K. [B6350] Solanum chaucha K001168788
    Balls, E.K. [B6347] Solanum chaucha K001168794
    Balls, E.K. [6306], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168797
    Balls, E.K. [6139] Solanum chaucha K001168798
    Balls, E.K. [6139] Solanum chaucha K001168799
    Balls, E.K. [6139] Solanum chaucha K001168800
    Balls, E.K. [6976], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169362
    Balls, E.K. [6856], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169363
    Balls, E.K. [6910], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169364
    Balls, E.K. [6959], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169365
    Balls, E.K. [6792], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169367
    Balls, E.K. [6994], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169369
    Balls, E.K. [6994], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169370
    Balls, E.K. [6760], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169373
    Balls, E.K. [6759], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169374
    Balls, E.K. [6763], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169375
    Balls, E.K. [6960], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169376
    Balls, E.K. [6960], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169378
    Balls, E.K. [6957], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169380
    Balls, E.K. [6974], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169381
    Hawkes [4351f], Bolivia Solanum chaucha K001168801
    Hawkes [4351b], Bolivia Solanum chaucha K001168802
    Hawkes [4351c], Bolivia Solanum chaucha K001168803
    Hawkes, J.G. [4227], Bolivia Solanum chaucha K001168810
    Hawkes, J.G. [4226], Bolivia Solanum chaucha K001168811
    Vargas, C. [360] Solanum chaucha K001169377
    Cardenas, M. [CPC2764] Solanum chaucha K001168661
    Cardenas, M. [CPC2769] Solanum chaucha K001168662
    Cardenas, M. [CPC1590] Solanum chaucha K001168663
    Balls [6405] Solanum chaucha K001168783
    Balls [6353] Solanum chaucha K001168785
    Balls [6352] Solanum chaucha K001169334
    Balls [6756], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169336
    Balls [6760], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169337
    Balls [6762], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169338
    Balls [7032], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169347
    Balls [7160], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169348
    Balls [7160], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169349
    Balls [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001169361
    Balls [6856] Solanum chaucha K001169366
    Balls [6974] Solanum chaucha K001169379
    Cardenas [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169339
    Cárdenas [56], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169356
    Cárdenas, M. [338], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169340
    Cárdenas, M. [469], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169342
    Cárdenas, M. [173], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169344
    Cárdenas, M. [355], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169345
    Cárdenas, M. [181], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169346
    Cárdenas, M. [182], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169357
    Cárdenas, M. [339], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169358
    Cárdenas, M. [189], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169360
    Cárdenas, M. [470], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169371
    Cárdenas, M. [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169372
    Yabar, L.A. [64], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168764
    Yabar, L.A. [63], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168765
    Yabar, L.A. [61], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168767
    Yabar, L.A. [55], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168769
    Yabar, L.A. [52], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168770
    Yabar, L.A. [26], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168771
    Yabar, L.A. [26], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168772
    Yabar, L.A. [21], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168773
    Yabar, L.A. [21], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168774
    Yabar, L.A. [1], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168790
    Yabar, L.A. [1], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168791
    Yabar, L.A. [2], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168792
    Yabar, L.A. [A2], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168793
    Yabar, L.A. [13], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168804
    Yabar, L.A. [12], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168805
    Yabar, L.A. [12], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168806
    Yabar, L.A. [6], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168807
    Yabar, L.A. [4], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168808
    Yabar, L.A. [78] Solanum chaucha K001169321
    Yabar, L.A. [334] Solanum chaucha K001169322
    Yabar, L.A. [335] Solanum chaucha K001169323
    Yabar, L.A. [336] Solanum chaucha K001169324
    Yabar, L.A. [337] Solanum chaucha K001169325
    s.coll [69], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168763
    s.coll [61] Solanum chaucha K001168766
    s.coll [6528], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168777
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001168778
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001168779
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001168781
    s.coll [6347], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168795
    s.coll [6347], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168796
    s.coll [1521], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169326
    s.coll [1566], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169327
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001169328
    s.coll [1066], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001169329
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001169330
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001169333
    s.coll [939] Solanum chaucha K001169335
    s.coll [842] Solanum chaucha K001169341
    s.coll [857], Bolivia Solanum chaucha K001169343
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001169350
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001169351
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001169352
    s.coll [422] Solanum chaucha K001169353
    s.coll [483] Solanum chaucha K001169354
    s.coll [1412] Solanum chaucha K001169355
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001169359
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001169368
    Soukup [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001169331
    Soukup [s.n.] Solanum chaucha K001169332
    Yabar [55], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168768
    Yabar [1], United Kingdom Solanum chaucha K001168789
    Yabar [4] Solanum chaucha K001168809

    First published in Sp. Pl. 1: 185 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Ovchinnikova, A., Krylova, E., Gavrilenko, T., Smekalova, T., Zhuk, M., Knapp, S. & Spooner, D.M. (2011). Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae) Petota: Solanaceae) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 165: 107-155.
    • Liogier, A.H. (1994). Flora de la Española 6: 1-517. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • Edmonds, J. E., Vorontsova, M. S. & Knapp, S. (2012) Solanaceae. In: Flora of Tropical East Africa, ed. H. Beentje, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2010). Solanaceae Source.
    • Vaughan, J. G. & Geissler, C. A. (2009). The New Oxford Book of Food Plants. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
    • Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
    • Kiple, K. F. & Ornelas, K. C. (eds) (2000). The Cambridge World History of Food, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
    • Huxley, A., Griffiths, M. & Levy, M. (eds) (1999). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. Volume 4 (R to Z). Macmillan Reference, London.
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Liogier, A.H. (1994). Flora de la Española 6: 1-517. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Eth. 5: 123 (2006).
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 208 (2006)
    • F.Z. 8: 71 (2005)
    • Mansfeld, Encycl. Ag. & Hort. Crops 4: 1815 (2001)
    • Fl. Egypt 6: 48 (1998)
    • Bothalia 25(1): 57 (1995)
    • Purdie et al., Fl. Australia 29: 70, 74 & 76 (1994)
    • the New RHS Gard. Dict. 4: 320 (1992)
    • Pak. J. Bot., 23: 272 (1991)
    • Solanaceae III: 347 (1991)
    • Hawkes, The Potato: 180 (1990)
    • Bothalia 18: 87 (1988)
    • Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 8: 77 (1985)
    • Jaeger, Syst. studies Solanum in Africa: 313 (1985, ined.)
    • Fl. Europ. 3: 198 (1972)
    • Hawkes & Hjerting, Potatoes of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay & Uruguay: 431 (1969)
    • Heiser, Nightshades: 28 (1969)
    • E.P.A.: 879 (1963)
    • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 335 (1963)
    • Correll, The potato and its wild relatives: 499 (1962)
    • Polhill, Solanum in E & NE Africa: 8 (1961, ined.)
    • Proc. Linn. Soc. 166: 106 (1956)
    • U.O.P.Z.: 448 (1949)
    • E.J. 54: 499 (1917)
    • D.C. Prodr., 13(1): 31 (1852)
    • Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 97 (1851)
    • G. Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. Pl. 4: 400 (1837)
    • Dumortier, Fl. Belg.: 382 (1827)
    • Synopsis: 5 (1816)
    • Dunal, Hist. Solanum:117 (1813)
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 185 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0