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  1. Family: Aquifoliaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Ilex Tourn. ex L.
      1. Ilex mitis (L.) Radlk.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [FWTA]

    Aquifoliaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A tree, to 40 ft. high
    Leaves
    Dark green foliage
    Flowers
    Flowers cream or white
    Fruits
    Ripe fruits red
    Ecology
    In montane forest, especially by streams.
    [FTEA]

    Aquifoliaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Evergreen shrub, or more usually a tree, 4–24(–40) m. tall and up to 0–3(–1) m. in diameter at the base of the trunk; bark grey, fairly smooth; young branchlets often puberulous.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate; lamina dark green above, paler beneath, elliptic, oblong-elliptic, obovate-elliptic, or elliptic-lanceolate, rarely almost round, 2.5–14 cm. long, 1.3–4.6(–5.3) cm. wide, acute, apiculate or rounded at the apex, obtuse to cuneate at the base, entire or sometimes spinous-toothed, particularly towards the apex, glabrous; midrib deeply impressed above; petiole 5–10 mm. long; stipules sub-persistent, ± 0.75–1 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes axillary, usually fascicled, rarely solitary, 1–6(–7)-flowered in ♂ plants, 1–4(–5)-flowered in ♀ plants; peduncles 1–15 mm. long, puberulous; pedicels 3–8(–14) mm. long; bracts and bracteoles minute.
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant. Female flowers with shorter staminodes; ovary globose, 4–6(–8)-locular; stigma discoid, 4–6(–8)-lobed. Male flowers with stamens 1.5–2 mm. long; rudimentary ovary conical, grooved, beaked, slightly bilobed.
    Calyx
    Sepals 4–6(–8), rounded or subacute, ± 1.5 mm. long and wide, joined at the base, ciliolate.
    Corolla
    Petals white, 4–6(–8), rounded or elliptic, ± 3.5 mm. long and 1.5 mm. wide, joined at the base.
    Male
    Male flowers with stamens 1.5–2 mm. long; rudimentary ovary conical, grooved, beaked, slightly bilobed.
    Female
    Female flowers with shorter staminodes; ovary globose, 4–6(–8)-locular; stigma discoid, 4–6(–8)-lobed.
    Fruits
    Drupes yellow-green, turning brownish-violet or crimson when ripe, globose, 4–7 mm. in diameter, rugulose and sometimes ribbed when dry, containing 4–6(–8) pyrenes.
    Seeds
    Seeds brownish, 2–3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide.
    Figures
    Fig. 1.
    [FZ]

    Aquifoliaceae, E. J. Mendes. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Fruits
    Fruit of (4)5–6(7) pyrenes, c. 7 mm. in diam., subglobose, red, partially enclosed at the base by the persistent sepals.
    Habit
    Tree up to 20–30 m. high or shrub, sometimes straggling, with dark shining green foliage; bark light grey-brown with prominent whitish lenticels; dioecious.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina up to 13 × 4·5 cm., narrowly elliptic to lanceolate, apex acute, subrounded or emarginate and apiculate, obtuse to subacute at the base, entire or remotely denticulate (particularly towards the apex), glabrous, with numerous spreading looped lateral nerves; petiole c. 1 cm. long; stipules narrowly triangular, deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, solitary or congested.
    Flowers
    Flowers pedicellate, unisexual by abortion; male flowers (1)3–5(7), subumbellate with peduncles up to 1 cm. long; female flowers 1–3(5), subumbellate on shorter peduncles or subfasciculate.
    Calyx
    Sepals minutely ciliolate.
    Corolla
    Petals whitish.
    Stigma
    Stigma thick and sessile.
    Ovary
    Ovary (4)5–6(7)-locular.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Ethiopia, Free State, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Ilex mitis (L.) Radlk. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2005 Tsekeli, A. [4115], Uganda K000036013
    Jan 1, 1996 Onana, J.-M. [560 A], Cameroon K000337621
    Jan 1, 1993 Tekwe, C. [263], Cameroon K000436377
    Jan 1, 1993 Tekwe, C. [167], Cameroon K000436873
    Jul 1, 1967 Letouzey, R. [8929], Cameroon K000093488
    Keay, R.W.J. [28644], Cameroon K000093495
    Keay, R.W.J. [FHI 28513], Cameroon K000093500
    Hepper, F.N. [1985], Cameroon K000093505
    Ash, J. [1530], Ethiopia 34288.000
    Maitland, T.D. [1660], Cameroon K000093490
    Maitland, T.D. [1660], Cameroon K000093491
    Brenan, J.P.M. [9395], Cameroon K000093502
    Hankey [3324], South Africa 71427.000
    Mann G. [1186] K000093498 Unknown type material
    Mann G. [1186] K000093497 Unknown type material
    Patel, H. [7376], Mozambique K000613638
    Timberlake, J. [5195], Mozambique K000613923
    Timberlake, J. [5265], Mozambique K000613994
    Mphamba, S. [19], Mozambique K000613715
    Horne, J.E.M. [FHI 40617], Cameroon K000093503
    Horne, J.E.M. [FHI 40459], Cameroon K000093504

    Bibliography

    First published in Rep. Brit. Assoc. Advancem. Sci. 1885: 1081 (1886)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 17: 540.
    • in Rep. Brit. Ass. 1885: 1081 (1886)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Verdc. in Kew Bulletin 21: 243 (1967).
    • Mendes in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 353, t. 75 (1966).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 215 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 50, fig. 9 (1961).
    • A. Robyns in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 9: 110, t. 11 (1960).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 623 (1958).
    • Pardy in Rhod. Agric. Journ. 53: 960 (1956).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 31 (1952).
    • Wimbush, Cat. Kenya Timbers: 49 (1952).
    • Excell & Mendonça in Consp. Fl. Angol. 1: 348 (1951).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 58 (1949).
    • Loes. in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 20b: 65 (1942).
    • Loes. in A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 218 (1921)
    • Radlk. in Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1885: 1081 (1886).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0