Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is N. Africa to Chad, Iran to Arabian Peninsula.
Anethum graveolens

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Plant up to c. 1 m tall; stems finely ribbed
Morphology Leaves
Leaves up to 20 cm long; petiole up to c. 2 cm long; sheaths with a broad membranous margin, auriculate at the top, the uppermost leaves sometimes reduced to sheaths only
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels distinctly pedunculate, at least some of the lateral ones partially male; rays 5–40, 2–10 mm long; flowers 5–30 in each partial umbel, on 2–8 mm long pedicels
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals c. 0.8 mm long, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits c. 3–5 x 2–3 mm, the ribs pale, the marginal ones expanded and wing-like; styles strongly deflexed, shorter than the stylopodia.
Distribution
S1, 2 widespread in the Old World, in Somalia cultivated and sometimes found as an escape at least in the southern part.
Ecology
Altitude up to c. 300 m.
Vernacular
Dill (English)
Note
Anethum is very similar to Foeniculum, but it is a generally smaller, annual plant with strongly compressed, winged fruits. The two plants also have a very different smell.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 2600 m.; Andes, Valle del Cauca.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
aneldo, eneldo

[FTEA]

Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Erect, glabrous, annual herb ± 0.2–1 m. tall, with a pleasant aromatic odour recalling parsley; rootstock slender.
Morphology Stem
Stem sparingly to considerably branched, wiry, terete, finely striate.
Morphology Leaves
Lower leaves 3–4-pinnate with 3–7 pairs of pinnae dissected into capillary segments 2–25 × 0.25–0.5 mm., each terminating in a sharp, pale or brownish mucro; largest leaves up to ± 20 cm. long, deltoid; petiole ± 0.5–2 cm.; sheaths triangular to narrowly oblong, finely striate, 1–7 cm., rather broadly membranous-margined, auriculate at the top with blunt to acute membranous auricles; upper leaves rapidly reducing, sessile on the sheaths, often with longer segments, the uppermost rarely reduced to sheaths alone.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels numerous, on mostly (1.8–)5–22 cm. peduncles, usually at least some lateral umbels partially ♂; rays 5–40, glabrous, 2–10 cm.; partial umbels 5–30-flowered, on glabrous, 2–8 mm. pedicels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals ± 0.75 mm., glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit elliptic-oblong, strongly dorsally compressed, ± 3–5 × 2–3 mm., the ribs pale, the marginals wider and thicker; stylopodia shortly conical with crenulate margins; styles short, strongly deflexed on and shorter than the stylopodia.
Figures
Fig. 31.
Habitat
Roadsides and waste ground in towns, abandoned gardens and one specimen ( Taylor 69) “on coral rock in small pockets overhanging the sea”; the latter was perhaps bird sown; 0–1650 m.
Distribution
K1 K3 K4 T5 Z external distribution as for genus

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Erect, glabrous, yellowish or glaucous-green annual herb, corymbosely branched from base or a little above, 0.2–0.9(–1) m
Morphology Stem
Stem and branches terete, finely striate
Morphology Leaves
Leaves all petiolate, sheathing, 3- or 4(–5)-pinnate into setaceous segments, lower deltoid to oblong lanceolate in outline, to ± 15 cm long, upper shorter and deltoid-ovate, segments 2–25 × 0.2–0.5 mm, those of upper leaves longest
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles (1.8–)5–22 cm, at least some lateral umbels usually partially male
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels many, 5–40-rayed, rays in fruit 2–10 cm Partial umbels (5–)10–30-flowered, flowers small, ± 2 mm in diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Fruiting pedicels 2–8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ellipsoid, 3–5 × 2–3 mm, tapering to the small crenulate-margined disk
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stylopodium
Stylopodia conspicuous, conical, styles persistent, very short, reflexed and scarcely equalling the disk of ripe fruit.
Ecology
In gardens, orchards, fields and waste land near villages; widely cultivated and subspontaneous as a weed; alt. up to 700 m or more
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Mar.–May on the plains, Jun.–Jul. in the mountains.
Distribution
Occasional in the lower forest zone and steppe region, quite common on alluvial plain in desert region of Iraq. Widely cultivated and often naturalized in Mediterranean and SE Europe, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Arabia, Turkey, Iran etc. to China, N Africa (Libya) and elsewhere.
Note
Dill; known in Iraq under several names, most generally, in Lower Iraq, as SBINT and HABBAT HADWA.

[FZ]

Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Robust, rather glabrous annual herb up to 75 cm., with a strong characteristic odour.
Morphology Stem
Stem terete, with numerous fine grooves.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3–4-pinnate, ultimate segments narrowly linear to filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels terminal, equalled or exceeded by long peduncled laterals. Rays numerous, up to 4 cm. long; bracts and bracteoles 0. Partial umbels with up to 35 flowers, but those of small plants may have as few as 6.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Sepals obsolete; petals yellow with an obvious inturned apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit elliptic, strongly dorsiventrally compressed, with a moderately well-developed marginal wing paler in colour than the body of the fruit. Stylopodium lowconical; styles short, clubbed at the apex, divergent and shed before the fruit matures. Dorsal ribs filiform, carpophore 2-cleft to the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae well developed, 1 per interval and 2 in the commissural face.

[FIQ]
Use
As noted by Guest (1933) this species is widely cultivated on a small scale throughout our country, principally for its foliage, which is cooked as a vegetable and used to flavour rice. The dried leaves are sold in local markets as SBINT; ripe fruits sold as HABBAT HALWA (“sweet seeds” Arabic) and used as a condiment with cooked meats. In addition to the two above names, dill is often confused with caraway owing to its strong aromatic smell and is hence not infrequently called KARAUYA or (more strictly the name of caraway seed) the fruits of Carum carvi q.v. Another name for this plant in the north is SIBAT (Kurd.-Zawita, Guest 3740 – “used as a condiment for flavouring”). A medicinal oil (Oleum anethi) can be obtained from the fruit by distillation, its properties being carminative and stomachic. It is recognised locally, as well as elsewhere, as the basis for an excellent remedy for children’s complaints such as minor digestive ailments, flatulence etc., and forms the basis of what is known as “dill water” or, alternatively, according to Wren (1956), it can be administered by a few drops of the oil on sugar.

Native to:

Algeria, Chad, Cyprus, Gulf States, Iran, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Altay, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Hungary, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iraq, Italy, Jamaica, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kriti, Krym, Laos, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, New Jersey, New York, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northwest European R, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, Somalia, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Virginia, Wake I., Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yugoslavia

Anethum graveolens L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Petit [s.n.], Ethiopia K000272711
s.coll. [Cat. no. 7210] K001126920
s.coll. [Cat. no. 7210] K001126919
Roxburgh, W. [s.n.] Anethum sowa K000685916
s.coll. [Cat. no. 595], Bangladesh Anethum sowa K001111372
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 595], Nepal Anethum sowa K001111369
Roxburgh, W. [s.n.] Anethum sowa K000685917 Unknown type material
s.coll. [Cat. no. 595] Anethum sowa K001111370
s.coll. [Cat. no. 595], Bangladesh Anethum sowa K001111371

First published in Sp. Pl.: 263 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(1): 1-904. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Armemov, I.A. (2012). Opredelitel' Rastenii Respublika Altai: 1-640. Novosibirsk: Izd-vo SO RAN.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Urgamal, M. (2009). Flora of Mongolia 10: 1-114. Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany, Ulaanbaatar.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
  • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of Iraq

  • Blakelock in Kew Bull. 3: 432 (1948);
  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 1026 (1872);
  • DC., Prodr. 4: 1830);
  • E. Nasir in Fl. Pak. 20: 111 (1972);
  • Grossh., Fl. Kavk. ed. 2, 7: 97 (1967);
  • Guest in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 27: 7 (1933);
  • H. Riedl in Fl. Lowland Iraq: 467 (1964);
  • Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Balc. 1: 1039 (1927);
  • Husain & Kasim, Cult. Fl. Iraq 105 (1975);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 263 (1753);
  • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus 1: 751 (1977);
  • Mouterde, Nouv. Fl. Lib. et Syr. 2: 627 (1970);
  • Rawi & Chakr. in Dep. Agr. Iraq Tech. Bull. 15: 13 (1964);
  • Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 162: 345 (1987);
  • She Menglan & Watson in Fl. China 14: 134 (2005).
  • Zohary, Fl. Palaest. 2: 433 (1972);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 1: 554 (1932);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(1): 1-904. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Armemov, I.A. (2012). Opredelitel' Rastenii Respublika Altai: 1-640. Novosibirsk: Izd-vo SO RAN.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Urgamal, M. (2009). Flora of Mongolia 10: 1-114. Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany, Ulaanbaatar.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
  • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Cannon in Consp. Fl. Angol. 4: 353 (1970)
  • Cannon in Flora Zambesiaca 4: 607 (1978).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 648 (1959).
  • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 299 (1895).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 263 (1753).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0