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This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous biennial or perennial herb with a short incrassate-fusiform rootstock, branched considerably from base and also above, (10–)25–80 cm; stem and branches ± striate with pale, raised lines
Morphology Leaves
Leaf outline deltoid-lanceolate to linear-oblong, all lower leaves petiolate with a long, narrowly oblong, membranous-margined sheath, uppermost leaves sessile and rapidly reducing with fewer and narrower segments Leaves bipinnate with pinnatisect pinnae, ultimate segments linearlanceolate, mucronate, 1–1.5 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Partial umbels of 8–15 white or pink tinged flowers, involucel absent or of 1–3 small bracteoles much shorter than the longest of the very unequal 1–10 mm pedicels Umbels numerous, terminal and leaf-opposed, with 5(–15) very unequal (2–)5–40 mm rays; bracts of involucre none or up to ± 5, small and membranous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles (15–)3–9 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit narrowly oblong to ovoid, dark brown with paler ribs, 3–5 × 2–3 mm, stylopodia conical, small, ovoid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles short, divaricate or incurved, slightly exceeding stylopodia.
Ecology
Perhaps sometimes cultivated and occasionally naturalized; alt. ± 230 m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Apr.
Distribution
Apparently very rare in Iraq; only found once in the moist-steppe zone. Most of N & C Europe to N Spain, N Italy, W Russia, Cyprus (probably a naturalized escape from gardens), N Africa, Palestine (cult.), Egypt (cult.), Turkey (widely cultivated and often naturalized), Caucasus, N Iran, Afghanistan, C Asia (Turkmenistan to Tian Shan), Siberia, Himalaya, China; introduced into New Zealand, N America.
Note
Caraway, Common Caraway; KARĀWIYĀ (as spelled by Ibn al-Baitar), or KARAUYĀ (as more usually spelled in Arabic).

[FIQ]
Use
The dry aromatic fruits of this species, known as caraway seeds, have been widely used as a spice in many countries from time immemorial. Caraway oil is obtained by steam distillation of the crushed fruits; it is used in medicine as a carminative and stimulant and also as a perfume for soap.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Altay, Amur, Austria, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, Chita, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Manchuria, Mongolia, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alberta, Algeria, British Columbia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cyprus, District of Columbia, Føroyar, Great Britain, Greenland, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Kentucky, Labrador, Libya, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Dakota, South Georgia, Svalbard, Tunisia, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Carum carvi L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1977 Parsa, A. [703], Iran K000685674
Royle [s.n.], India K000685658
Walton, H.J. [s.n.], Tibet K000685656
Walton, H.J. [4], Tibet K000685657

First published in Sp. Pl.: 263 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Kryukova, M.V. & Kostomarova, I.V. (2014). New and rar species of vascular plants in the state natural reserve "Botchinsky" Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 99: 1129-1133.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://www.newfoundland-labradorflora.com/checklist/.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Pimenov, M.G., Kljuykov, E.V. & Ukrainskaja, U.A. (2014). Cephalopodum badachshanicum, Semenovia vachanica and other Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) novelties of Afghan flora from Badakhshan province, with notes on some species of the Pamirs Skvortsovia 1: 149-168.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 879 (1872);
  • E. Nasir in Fl. Pak. 20: 87 (1972);
  • Guest in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 27: 19 (1933);
  • Hedge & Lamond in Fl. Turk. 4: 347 (1972);
  • Husain & Kasim, in Cult. Pl. Iraq 105 (1972);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 263 (1753);
  • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus 1: 743 (1977);
  • Rawi & Chakr. in Dep. Agr. Iraq Tech. Bull. 15: 23 (1964);
  • Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 162: 263 (1987);
  • Schischkin in Fl. SSSR 16: 386 (1950);
  • She Menglan & Watson in Fl. China 14: 81 (2005).
  • Wolff, l.c. 145 (1927);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 2: 522 (1933);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Liu, B. (2020-2021). Personal communication on the Flora of China. 1 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://www.newfoundland-labradorflora.com/checklist/.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Flora of Iraq
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/