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This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Xinjiang, N. Africa to Ethiopia.
Conium maculatum L.

[FZ]

Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Erect, glabrous biennial herb up to 2 m. with a somewhat fleshy taproot.
Morphology Stem
Stem with rather fine, regular grooving, often with irregular, characteristic purple spots, but sometimes unspotted especially in southern Africa.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves up to 35 cm. long, 2–3-pinnate, broadly ovate to deltate in outline; ultimate segments lanceolate to elliptic, deeply and coarsely divided, apices of the lobes slightly mucronate; petioles up to 10 cm. long, dilated at the base to form a conspicuous sheath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Terminal umbels on short peduncles, overtopped by the longer-peduncled laterals. Bracts and bracteoles well developed, lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, often with a whitish margin, somewhat caducous. Umbels with up to 20 rays 2–3·5 cm. long, partial umbels with 6–15 flowers on pedicels 2–5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Calyx teeth obsolete; petals white with a short inflexed tip.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ovoid to suborbicular, somewhat laterally compressed; Stylopodium depressed; styles deflexed with somewhat swollen bases. Ribs well developed, either linear or very distinctly undulate; vittae 0; seed channelled on the inner face.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Tall but graceful biennial with a foetid odour, to 2 m
Morphology Stem
Stem very hollow, especially below, striate to lightly sulcate, purple-spotted, branching above
Morphology Leaves
Lower leaves long-petiolate, up to 60 cm broad and long, the lamina ovate or triangular-ovate in outline, delicate in appearance, tripinnatisect with narrowly lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate segments; cauline leaves diminishing in size and less dissected but also petiolate except for the uppermost
Morphology Branches
Branches opposite, umbels axillary and terminal-Involucre and involucel delicate, with broad membranous margins, often withered and not apparent at ripe fruit, of 6–7 lanceolate bracts, those of the involucel disposed unilaterally on the partial umbels
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles 1.5–6 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Main umbel of 10–18 rays, 0.5–3 cm long; partial umbels of (6–)10–25(–20) flowers of 2–3 mm in diameter, pedicels 2–7 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals obovate, the tip slightly inflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit broadly ovoid, 3–3.5 mm in diameter; mericarps with 5 strong pale ribs which contrast with the dark body of the fruit and are strongly crenulate in the typical plant, particularly near the apex of the fruit; styles ± 0.75 mm.
Ecology
In the mountains, near water, by a stream, on the edge of a damp thicket, in Quercus forest; alt. 900–1750 m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Jun.–Jul.
Distribution
Occasional but locally abundant, in the forest zone of Iraq. Atlantic, C & S Europe, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, C Asia, Siberia, N Africa (Algeria, Tunisia, Libya), Macaronesia (Canary Is., Azores). Introduced into China, Australia, S Africa, C & S America and in some places subspontaneous.
Note
Represented in Iraq by the var. leiocarpum Boiss., which has the ribs of fruit quite smooth and devoid of crenulations. Common Hemlock (Eng.), Poison Hemlock (Am.); SHAUKARĀN (Ar., Watt, Bedevian et al.). This was the State Poison of ancient Athens for the execution of criminals, so tragically used to eliminate the great philosopher Socrates, as Plato described. As Schischkin mentions, all parts of the plant, and especially the fruit, contain toxic alkaloids and in former times preparations containing these substances have been widely used to treat various diseases; but in view of side effects and the occurrence of poisoning, such preparations are no longer prescribed. The plant has a disagreeable odour in warm weather, and when dried is reminiscent of mice; its taste is sharp and bitter.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 1500 - 3045 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
cicuta, humaria, perla

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alberta, Altay, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Azores, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Falkland Is., Georgia, Great Britain, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Primorye, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Zimbabwe

Conium maculatum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Day, C.D. [704], Turkey K000341678
Webb, P.B. [s.n.], Canary Is. K001091127
Acebes, J.R. [s.n.], Canary Is. K001091130
Glaziou, A. [19408], Brazil K001130768
Lowe, R.T. [s.n.], Canary Is. K001091128
Cope, T.A. [RBG 378], Great Britain K000914290
Bourgeau, E. [824], Canary Is. K001091129
Usteri, A. [100], Brazil K001130773
Glaziou, A. [21343], Brazil K001130769
Saint-Hilaire, A. [c2-1196], Brazil K001130770
Usteri [100], Brazil K001130771
Day, C.D. [704], Turkey K000341676
Usteri, A. [100], Brazil K001130772
Lindeman, J.C. [3096], Brazil K001130774
Murray, R.P. [s.n.], Canary Is. K001091126

First published in Sp. Pl.: 243 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2013). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 16 Taxon 62: 1355-1360.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of Iraq

  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 922 (1872);
  • DC., Prodr. 4: 242 (1830);
  • E. Nasir in Fl. Pak. 20: 27 (1972);
  • Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Balc. 1: 1069 (1927);
  • Leute in Fl. Iranica 162: 171 (1987);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 243 (1753);
  • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus 1: 691 (1977);
  • Mouterde, Nouv. Fl. Lib. et Syr.Syr. 2: 610 (1970);
  • Pan Zehui & Watson in Fl. China 14: 58 (2005).
  • Rawi & Chakr., ibid. 15: 29 (1964);
  • Rawi in Dep. Agr. Iraq Tech. Bull. 14: 91 (1964);
  • Schischkin in Fl. SSSR 16: 225 (1950);
  • Stevens in Fl. Turk. 4: 380 (1972);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palaest. 2: 405 (1972);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 1: 534 (1932);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0