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This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Medit. to Pakistan.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Plant with a sweet-musky smell, erect, 20–80 cm, rarely less, with few to many ascending branches from base upwards
Morphology Stem
Stems solid, ridged
Morphology Leaves
Remaining leaves becoming gradually more dissected upwards, upper irregularly 2- rarely 3-pinnate with rather long, narrowly linear, usually divaricate 2–12 × 0.4–2 mm segments, ± sessile on small, white-margined sheath Lowest leaves broadly trilobed to pinnate with 1–4 pairs of broad but lobed and toothed pinnae, occasionally bipinnate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles 1–6 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels few to many, with rather few, 3–6(–10) rays, rays 5–22 mm long Partial umbels 8–20-flowered, with an involucel of 3–5 linear-lanceolate bracteoles; radiate petals 4–5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Fruiting pedicels 2–4 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 4–6 mm, appearing rugose when ripe through the strongly undulate primary ridges, mericarps firmly adherent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles slender and flexuose, 1.5–2 mm
Morphology General
Forms with 3 carpels and styles are known
Note
The characteristic odour of the plant is likened to that of bedbugs.
Ecology
Widely cultivated as a garden herb on the plains of C & S Iraq (probably also in the lower mountain valleys in the N); a weed in gardens and fields, waste ground, etc., no doubt as an escape from cultivation; up to alt. ± 50 m or more (possibly to 400–500 m or even up to 1000 m?)
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Mar.–May (or later?).
Distribution
Cultivated and subspontaneous in the desert region of Iraq on irrigated alluvial plains. Europe, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Sinai, Egypt, Arabia, Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, C Asia, N Africa Macaronesia, N & S America, etc. Cultivated and found as an escape almost all over the world, so that its native place of origin remains unknown.
Vernacular
Coriander; KUZBARA (Ar., Ir., Eg., Pal. etc., Guest (1935), Gillett 10722, Sahira C. 626), GESHNIZ (Pers., Parsa), GIZHNIZH Kurd., Wahby & Edmonds).

[FZ]

Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
An erect annual, almost glabrous herb up to 70 cm., with a slender taproot and a strong unpleasant smell.
Morphology Stem
Stems often simple, but in large plants may be profusely branched, with fine regular grooves.
Morphology Leaves
Lower leaves 1–2-pinnate, segments 10–20 × 5–10 mm., ovate in overall outline, with a regularly cuneate base, somewhat unevenly divided into pinnate lobes. Upper leaves finely divided into a linear to narrowly linear segments 2–15 × 0·5–1·0 mm., obviously markedly different from the basal leaves but sometimes connected by intermediate types on the lower-middle part of the stem.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels terminal and lateral; bracts O; rays 3–7 (10), 1–2 cm. long; partial umbels with 2–7 flowers; bracteoles few, linear-lanceolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white to pinkish-white; the outer ones distinctly radiate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx teeth narrowly triangular and quite conspicuous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles long and slender, often eroded from the conical stylopodium before maturity.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 2–3 mm. in diameter, suborbicular, slightly longer than broad. Mericarps with obtuse filiform ribs, with zigzag markings between them.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae absent; seed concave on the inner face: carpophore divided to the base.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 2850 m.; Amazonia, Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Erect herb up to c. 80 cm tall, with an unpleasant smell; stems finely striate
Morphology Leaves
Leaves pinnate or 2-pinnate, with 1–4 pairs of pinnae; lower leaves with broad pinnae, c. 10–30 x 10–25 mm, toothed, distinctly petiolate; the upper leaves more irregularly divided into narrowly linear segments c. 2–12 x 0.4–2 mm, short-petiolate or sessile; sheaths short, with membranous margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels with peduncles up to 8 cm long; rays c. 3–6, 5–22 mm long; bracts 0–1, linear; flowers c. 8–20 in each partial umbel, on 2–4 mm long pedicels; involucre of 2–5 linear bracteoles about as long as or longer than the pedicels
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes ± narrowly triangular, unequal, up to c. 1.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white to pinkish, the outer 2 of outer flowers much larger than the others, obcordate, c. 4–5 mm long, other petals c. 1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits subglobose, 4–6 mm in diam.; primary ribs low and very sinuous, secondary ribs prominent; vittae dark, prominent, 2 in each commissural face; styles 1.5–2 mm long, much longer than the stylopodia.
Distribution
N1, 2 probably a native of South-West Asia, widespread in cultivation.
Ecology
Altitude range c. 1400 m.

[FTEA]

Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual herb (10–)20–80 cm. tall, glabrous, with an unpleasant sweet-musky smell.
Morphology Stem
Stems terete, finely striate, simple to considerably branched.
Morphology Leaves
Primary leaves simple, small, oblanceolate, soon withering; basal leaves broadly trilobed to pinnate or sometimes bipinnate, with 1–4 pairs of pinnae; pinnae broad, ± 1.25–3 × 1–2.5 cm., cuneate-based, at least the terminal broadly trilobed, with ovate to oblong teeth, generally also withered by the time fruit is set; petioles long, 3–10(–18) cm.; upper leaves regularly or commonly irregularly pinnately divided into narrow linear, mucronate, ± 2–12 × 0.4–2 mm. segments, petiole rapidly diminishing and most of the upper leaves sessile on the sheaths, lamina ovate to oblong in outline; leaf sheaths shortly oblong, broadly membranous-margined, nervose, 5–15 mm.; demarcation between broadly dissected lower leaves and finely divided upper leaves usually well-marked, sometimes more gradual.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Peduncles of umbels ± 1–6 cm.; umbels mostly 3–6-rayed (rarely more), rays 5–22 mm.; involucre absent or of a single narrowly linear bract; partial umbels ± 8–20-flowered on 2–4 mm. pedicels; involucel of 2–5 linear bracteoles subequalling the pedicels; all flowers fertile or usually a variable number of inner flowers functionally ♂ with very reduced styles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white to pinkish, the outer 2 of outer flowers strongly radiant, obcordate, to ± 4–5 mm., others ± 1 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit subglobose or slightly longer than broad, 4–6 mm.; secondary ribs prominent, primary low and very sinuose; styles slender, 1.5–2 mm., much longer than the conical stylopodia; 2 broad, conspicuous, purplish-brown vittae on the commissural face of each mericarp, sometimes reportedly absent; forms with 3 carpels and styles occur occasionally, but have not been seen in African material.
Figures
Fig. 10.
Habitat
Weed of lawns and cultivated ground, sometimes in damp places; 1240–1520 m.
Distribution
widespread in cultivation in the warmer regions of the world and not infrequently spontaneous as a casual even in the temperate zonesprobably a native of SW. Asia K4 T3 U4

>

[FIQ]
Use
As a spice it has been known since the dawn of history. It is used to flavour soups, stews, curries, salads etc. in many countries and in the Hadramaut in S Arabia to flavour bread. According to Schischkin (1950) the young stems are sometimes used as a spice in Georgia while the dried stems provide fuel. He goes on to state that the fruit contains up to 1% of essential coriander oil, of which the main component is coriandrol, and that this is obtained by soaking the fruit in water for about 14 hours and then by distillation. This oil is used in the manufacture of perfumes, soap and liqueurs, and also added to improve the taste of medicines as a substitute for other aromatic substances; the fruit is also sometimes employed as a flavourant and spice in pastries and even in canned meats. Moreover the fruit also contains about 15% of a fatty oil, which can be extracted from the residue left after separation of the essential oil by distillation, while the residual cake, containing some 12% of protein, is fed to cattle. Wren (1956) describes the medicinal properties of the fruit as stimulant and carminative.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Iran, Lebanon-Syria, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Transcaucasus, Turkey

Introduced into:

Algeria, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Borneo, Brazil South, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Hungary, Illinois, India, Iraq, Italy, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madeira, Malaya, Maluku, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, New Guinea, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Romania, Réunion, Sicilia, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Siberia, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe

Coriandrum sativum L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 256 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Berry, M. (2018). Adventives and aliens news 14 BSBI News 138: 46-51.
  • Vladimirov, V. Aybeke, M. & Kit Tan (2018). New floristic records in the Balkans: 37 Phytologia Balcanica 24: 397-461.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F., Matevski, V. & Kit Tan (2014). New floristic records in the Balkans: 25 Phytologia Balcanica 20: 267-310.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Urgamal, M. (2009). Flora of Mongolia 10: 1-114. Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany, Ulaanbaatar.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Gorchakovskii, P.L. & al. (1994). Opredelitel' sosudistykkhrastenii srednego Urala: 1-524. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
  • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1981). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 3: 1-499. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Boulos, Fl. Egypt 2: 157 (2000).
  • Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 162: 161 (1987);
  • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus 1: 717 (1977);
  • Husain & Kasim, Cult. Pl. Iraq 105 (1975);
  • V. Tackh., Stud. Fl. Egypt ed. 2: 385 (1974);
  • E. Nasir in Fl. Pak. 20: 26 (1972);
  • Hedge & Lamond in Fl. Turk. 4: 331 (1972);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palaest. 2: 401 (1972);
  • Mouterde, Nouv. Fl. Lib. et Syr. 2: 612 (1970);
  • Grossh., Fl. Kavk. ed. 2, 7: 48 (1967);
  • H. Riedl in Fl. Lowland Iraq: 458 (1964);
  • Rawi & Chakr. in Dep. Agr. Iraq Tech. Bull. 15: 30 (1964);
  • Schischkin in Fl. SSSR: 16: 184 (1950);
  • Bornmuller in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 58B: 280 (1938);
  • Anth in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 18: 289 (1935);
  • Guest in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 27: 25 (1933);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 1: 533 (1932);
  • Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Balc. 1: 1074 (1927);
  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 920 (1872);
  • DC., Prodr. 4: 250 (1830);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 256 (1753);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Berry, M. (2018). Adventives and aliens news 14 BSBI News 138: 46-51.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Urgamal, M. (2009). Flora of Mongolia 10: 1-114. Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany, Ulaanbaatar.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Gorchakovskii, P.L. & al. (1994). Opredelitel' sosudistykkhrastenii srednego Urala: 1-524. Nauka, Moscow.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
  • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1981). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 3: 1-499. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) (1948-1954). Flora Malesiana 4: 1-631. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Cannon in Flora Zambesiaca 4: 575 (1978).
  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 351 (1974).
  • Cannon in Consp. Fl. Angol. 4: 340 (1970).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 360 (1952).
  • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 300 (1895).
  • Hiern in Flora of Tropical Africa 3: 3 (1877).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 256 (1753).

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