1. Family: Apiaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Eryngium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Eryngium foetidum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America. It is used to treat infection and unspecified medicinal disorders, as a food additive and for food.

    [FTEA]

    Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Biennial herb ± 15–50 cm. tall, glabrous, with a peculiar unpleasant smell when bruised.
    Stem
    Stem finely striate and grooved, dichotomously branched above with axillary inflorescences at the branching points; ultimate branches short or elongate and frequently ± strongly zigzag, with lateral inflorescences.
    Leaves
    Basal leaves in a rosette of mostly 4–9, broadly linear-oblong to oblanceolate, ± 3.5–25 × 0.7–4 cm., with ± regular forwardly-directed spinous-mucronate teeth almost to the base, ± narrowed below to a short, broad, membranous-margined sheath; stem leafless until the first branching, leaves at this point broadly to lanceolate-oblong or ± flabellate, ± 2.7 × 0.4–3 cm., much more coarsely and jaggedly toothed than the basal leaves, sometimes tricuspidate and further toothed; upper leaves diminishing and finally linear and simple or tricuspidate; all leaves sessile.
    Inflorescences
    Capitula green to violet tinged, ± 7–12 × 3–4 mm., subtended by an involucre of mostly 4–6 bracts strongly resembling the upper leaves but less deeply and jaggedly toothed or entire; peduncles ± 3–18 mm., shortening upwards.
    Calyx
    Calyx-teeth subulate, sharp-pointed, ± 0.75 mm., subequalling the verrucose ovary.
    Corolla
    Petals linear-oblong, channelled, strongly emarginate with a long incurved lobule, subequalling the calyx, white.
    Fruits
    Fruit roundish, laterally compressed, ± 1.25 mm., strongly vesicular-verrucose, crowned by the persistent calyx; stylopodia broad and flat; styles slender, ± 1 mm.
    Figures
    Fig. 6.
    Habitat
    Said to be a frequent plant of grassland and old cultivated patches around Entebbe, including as a weed in the botanical gardens — whence it presumably originally escaped; ± 1165 m.
    Distribution
    U4 native of tropical and subtropical America, introduced into Africa, especially W. Africa
    [FWTA]

    Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A spiny leaved perennial herb
    Note
    An unpleasant smell
    Roots
    A fleshy rootstock exuding latex
    Flowers
    Flowers green.
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 5 - 1600 m.
    Habit
    Herb.
    Distribution
    Native and cultivated in Colombia.
    Vernacular
    Chadwoin beni, koulant.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 5 - 1600 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor
    [UPB]
    Food
    'Roots' - edible (Cadena-González 2010).
    Food Additives
    'Roots' - Used as a condiment (Cadena-González 2010). Leaves - Used as a condiment (Cadena-González 2010).
    Infections & Infestations
    Leaves and 'Roots' - Used in liquid medicines (Cadena-González 2010).
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central American Pac, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Fiji, Florida, Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Is., Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zaïre

    Common Names

    English
    Spirit weed
    Spanish
    Cilantrón, cilantro cimarrón, cilantro, culantrón, culantro de sabana, culantro cimarrón, perocón, cilantro de indio, culantro de coyote, culentro de culebra, culantro, cilantro ancho, cilantro cimarrón.

    Eryngium foetidum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1568], Cameroon K000008486
    Jan 1, 1988 Manning, S.D. [1277], Cameroon K000051047
    Jan 1, 1979 Lowe, J. [3769], Cameroon K000051052
    Mar 1, 1976 Satabie, B. [274], Cameroon K000051048
    Jan 1, 1968 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [6964], Cameroon K000051050
    Keay, R.W.J. [28573], Cameroon K000051046
    Hepper, F.N. [8695], Cameroon K000051045
    Binuyo, A. [FHI 35536], Cameroon K000051051
    Sanford, W.W. [5434], Cameroon K000051056
    Trail, J.W.H. [378], Brazil K001130377
    Trail, J.W.H. [378], Brazil K001130381
    Ejiofor, M.C. [29329], Cameroon K000051053
    Brenan, J.P.M. [9264], Cameroon K000051055
    Ule, E. [5115], Brazil K001130389
    Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil K001130387
    Lhotzky [s.n.], Brazil K001130391
    Vieira [200], Brazil K001130388
    Pereira, B.A.S. [369], Brazil K001130374
    Tate, R. [127], Nicaragua K001130380
    Lowe, J. [4060], Brazil K001130375
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [17626], Brazil K001130390
    Engler, H.G.A. [s.n.] K001130392
    Gardner [1027], Brazil K001130378
    Gardner [1027], Brazil K001130379
    Gardner [s.n.], Brazil K001130382
    Gardner [3002], Brazil K001130386
    Chuml, H. [68], Cameroon K000051054
    Coll. Nat. d'Agric. de Dschang [1861], Cameroon K000051049
    s.coll. [200], Brazil K001130376
    Burchell [3525], Brazil K001130383
    Burchell [3525], Brazil K001130384
    Burchell [10067], Brazil K001130385

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 232 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
    • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1981). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 3: 1-499. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 303.
    • —F.T.A. 3: 6
    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
    • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org
    • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
    • Cadena-González, A.L. (2010). Study of knowledge on medicinal plants in Zetaquira and Campo Hermoso municipalities (Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia) using quantitative approaches. Faculty of Life Sciences. University of Copenhagen.
    • Cuervo, S. (1999). Origen de las tecnologías agrícolas en el altiplano boyacense. Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas. Tunja. Colombia
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1981). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 3: 1-499. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • H. Wolff in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 228, heft 61: 203 (1913).
    • Hiern in Flora of Tropical Africa 3: 6 (1877).
    • L., Sp. Pl: 232 (1753).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/