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This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Medit. to Ethiopia and W. Nepal. It is used as a medicine and a food additive.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Alt. 1350 - 2850 m.

[FZ]

Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Robust, glabrous, somewhat glaucous perennial herb up to 2 m.
Morphology Stem
Stems rigid when mature and with many fine distinct ribs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with well-developed sheathing bases, up to 5 cm. long but frequently much shorter, 3–4-pinnate with finely-divided ultimate segments which are narrowly linear to capillary, becoming reduced upwards towards the inflorescence and finally occurring only as sheathing bases with 0–few linear lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels terminal and lateral, rays (4)9–30, 1–11 cm. long, relatively robust and somewhat glaucous. Partial umbels with up to 12 flowers on pedicels 5–10 mm. long; bracts and bracteoles 0 (rarely few).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Calyx teeth obsolete; petals bright yellow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 4–8 mm. long, narrowly ovoid at maturity, very distinctly glaucous-grey especially when immature; stylopodium rather low. Mericarps with ribs that are obvious at maturity, but inconspicuous in young fruit.

[FTEA]

Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Erect, glabrous, biennial or perennial herb 0.6–2(–2.4) m. tall, glaucous particularly above with a strong but pleasant aromatic odour resembling aniseed; root usually slender.
Morphology Stem
Stem sparingly to considerably branched, wiry, terete, finely striate.
Morphology Leaves
Lower leaves 3–4-pinnate, with mostly 4–7 pairs of pinnae dissected into capillary segments very variable in length, ± 0.4–12 cm. × 0.5–0.75 mm., each terminating in a sharp generally brownish mucro; largest leaves up to 0.5 m. long, broadly deltoid; petiole ± 2–5 cm.; sheaths narrowly oblong, finely striate, 3.5–12(–20) cm., narrowly membranous-margined, auriculate at the top with blunt to acute, membranous auricles; upper leaves rapidly reducing, sessile on the sheaths, the uppermost often ± reduced to sheaths alone or with a short “brush” of leaflets.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels numerous, on mostly 2.5–14 cm. peduncles; rays (3–)10–25(–30), glabrous, usually unequal, 2–6(–10) cm; partial umbels ± 6–23-flowered, on glabrous, 0.5–7(–10) mm. pedicels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals ± 1 mm., yellow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit oblong-ellipsoid, slightly laterally compressed, ± 4–6 × 1.75–2.5 mm., the ribs pale and prominent, calyx obsolete; stylopodia at first short, in ripe fruit shortly cylindrical-subconical, margins crenulate; styles short, strongly deflexed on and shorter than the stylopodia.
Figures
Fig. 30.
Habitat
An introduction, naturalised in disturbed places; 1650 m.
Distribution
K4 external distribution as for genus

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Plant up to c. 2 m tall; stems finely ribbed
Morphology Leaves
Leaves up to 50 cm long; petiole c. 2–5 cm long; sheaths with membranous margin, auriculate at the top, the uppermost leaves often reduced to sheaths only
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels distinctly pedunculate; rays (3–)10–25(–30), 2–10 cm long; flowers 6–23 in each partial umbel, on 0.5–7(–10) mm long pedicels
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals c. 1 mm long, glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits c. 4–6 x 1.75–2.5 mm, the ribs pale, all of about the same size; styles strongly deflexed and shorter than the stylopodia.
Distribution
N1–3; S2 widespread in cultivation, in Somalia particularly in the northern mountains.
Ecology
Altitude range 30–2050 m.
Vernacular
Fennel (Eng.); jaman, kamuun (Somali)

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1350 - 2850 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology Stem
Stem solid, tough, round, finely striate, usually much-branched
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 3–5-pinnate into filiform segments of (0.5–)1–5 cm long and in more than one plane, all furnished with lanceolate-oblong, elongate sheaths which in the uppermost leaves often exceed the length of lamina Outline of lower leaves broadly deltoid or deltoid-ovate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles 2–11 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels many, terminal or leaf-opposed, with (3–)8–30 rays 0.8–5 cm long, unequal-Partial umbels of many (8– 30) flowers, pedicels 2–7 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucre and involucel usually absent, though one or two subulate bracteoles may occasionally be found
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits oblong-ovoid, 4–6 mm, ± pruinose, glabrous, ribs prominent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stylopodium
Stylopodia turgidly conic, furrowed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles very short (± 0.25 mm.), reflexed
Morphology General Habit
Whole plant with a characteristic and powerful aromatic odour resembling aniseed, especially when bruised. Stout, erect, glabrous, glauco-pruinose perennial, mostly 0.6–2 m
Ecology
In the mountains by the open side of stream near a sheep pool, in rocky places; alt. 950–1350 m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: Jun.–Jul.
Distribution
Rare in Iraq; only found native in the middle forest zone. C & S Europe (Britain, Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Sicily, Balkans to Ukraine), Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Sinai, Egypt, Arabia, Turkey, Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, C Asia (Turkmenistan, Tajikistan), N India, China, Japan, N Africa (Morocco-Libya), Macaronesia (Madeira, Canary Is., Azores); also introduced into many other parts of the world such as Polynesia, tropical & S Africa, S America.
Note
As indicated above, it is usually seen as a cultivated plant in our territory and wild specimens are rare. The garden forms are commonly biennial, with fistular stems; two have been given varietal names: var. dulce (Mill.) Fiori & Paol., Fl. Anal. Ital. 2: 173 (1899). Stems subcompressed, underground surculi inflated and fleshy. var. sativum (Bertol.) Fiori & Paol., l.c. Stems terete, underground surculi not inflated and fleshy. Common Fennel; GHAZNĀIJ (Ir.-Baghdad, Guest 3420). RĀZYĀNIJ, a name then used for fennel in Syria, Egypt, Spain and Morocco, according to Ibn al-Baitar) is the only local name recorded for it which probably refers more specifically to its fruits – commonly on sale in the markets in Iraq where, as elsewhere, they are used in cooking as a condiment – than to the plant itself.

>

[UPB]
Use Food Food Additives
Stems and leaves - Used as a condiment (Cadena-González 2010, Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Digestive System Disorders
Leaves - Used in liquid medicines (Lagos-López 2007).
Use Medicines Muscular-Skeletal System Disorders
Used to alleviate muscle spasms (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Pregnancy, Birth or Puerpuerium Disorders
Stems and leaves - Used in liquid medicines combined with agua de panela (sugar cane drink) (Cadena-González 2010). Used for increasing breast milk production (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Respiratory System Disorders
Leaves and flowers - Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Skin or Subcutaneous Cellular Tissue Disorders
Used in liquid medicines (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[FSOM]
Use
Used as a spice or condiment

[FIQ]
Use
No doubt, as mentioned by Guest (1933), fennel is often confused with dill (Anethum graveolens, q.v.) the dried leaves of which are also sold as a potherb and used to garnish dishes under the colloquial name SBINT. The fruits of fennel yield an aromatic oil used in medicine as carminative, stomachic and stimulating; as a flavourant they form an ingredient of the well-known children’s laxative, Liquorice Powder, according to Wren (1956). Another Arabic name for this plant, SHAMRA BARRIYA was noted by Handel-Mazzetti in Aleppo (Hakim 26) and the name SHAMRA was confirmed by Sharaf (1928), who also gives SHAMĀR as a variant. The young shoots of the plant are used in Europe as a vegetable. It is widely cultivated in many parts of the world, and often found as an escape.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azores, Baleares, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Nepal, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, California, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Germany, Great Britain, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hungary, Illinois, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Mauritius, Mexico Northwest, Mongolia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Netherlands, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Romania, Réunion, Society Is., Somalia, South European Russi, St.Helena, Sudan, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Thailand, Ukraine, Uruguay, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zimbabwe

Spanish
Hinojo, eneldo, anís.

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Lindeman, J.C. [432], Brazil K001130806
Lindeman, J.C. [432], Brazil K001130807
s.coll. [Cat. no. 7211] Anethum panmorium K001126921
s.coll. [Cat. no. 7211], India Anethum panmorium K001126922
s.coll. [Cat. no. 7211], India Anethum panmorium K001126923

First published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 1 (1768)

Accepted by

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  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
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  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
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  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
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Literature

Flora of Iraq

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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

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Kew Backbone Distributions

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  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
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  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
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  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
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  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
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  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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Flora of Somalia

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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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