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This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. Turkey to Central Israel, Cyprus.
Pimpinella anisum, Köhler

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1900 - 3000 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
anís, anís común, anís verde

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Robust annual, 18–75 cm, considerably branched above and with a few branches nearer the base
Morphology Stem
Stem and branches terete, striate or sulcate, minutely downy
Morphology Leaves
Extreme basal leaves undivided or shortly trilobed, ovate-rotund to cuneate-obovate in outline, coarsely and irregularly toothed, cuneate at base; other basal leaves ternate with similar broad, deeply toothed and cuneate-based segments; all long-petiolate Lower stem leaves pinnate with 1 or 2 pairs of incised, cuneate-obovate leaflets; upper stem leaves sessile, pinnate or bipinnate, with narrow ultimate segments, sheathing, with a ± well-developed membranous web between the sheath and the lowest pair of pinnae All leaves green, subglabrous or sparsely and minutely puberulent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles 2–8 cm, with 10–20 finally ± incurved, subequal, minutely downy 1−3.5 cm rays
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Partial umbels 10–20-flowered, flowers ± 1.5 mm in diameter, petals glabrous, not radiate, pedicels 1.5−4 mm, downy but glabrescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucre and involucel usually absent, but 1 subulate bract or bracteole usually to be found on a few inflorescences
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit flask-shaped, broadest below the middle and attenuate above, expanding again slightly at the tip, 3–4 mm long and brownish when ripe, covered with short, appressed grey pubescence; ribs pale and rather conspicuous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae 4–8 in the valleculae, almost forming an annulus
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stylopodium
Stylopodia shortly conical, the margins rugose below; styles slender, about half as long as fruit or more, flexuose-divergent or reflexed.
Distribution
Apparently very rare in Iraq, the only record of its ever having been found presumably growing spontaneously in our territory being almost 90 years ago (fki/fni: Jabal Hamrin, Anthony, l.c.). The specimen has not been located and all records based on Anthony’s list alone are doubtful. There is however evidence that the species has been cultivated in comparatively recent years on the Agricultural Experimental Station nr Baghdad (lca: Abu Ghraib (cult.), Janan, Sahira & Omar C.188!).  This species is widespread in Europe, the Mediterranean region, western Asia and China (Xinjiang), but at least for the most part as an escape – though it is believed to be of Asiatic origin; it also occurs as an adventive in many other parts of the world. Shishkin (1950) reported that this species was widely cultivated in C Asia, as well as in W & SW Russia and Caucasus, adding that it is known only in cultivation there. So far as our own territory is concerned Guest (1933) stated that it was “said to be cultivated sometimes in the north, at Mosul and elsewhere” while Hussain and Kasim (1975) were perhaps nearer the mark in noting that there is “no definite report for the region of its cultivation” in Iraq. It is significant that in spite of the many botanists who have collected specimens all over our territory during the past fifty years or more this species has not been found, whether in cultivation or adventive. Thus, until and unless specimens are collected in different parts of the country, we doubt whether the plant occurs in Iraq at all.
Vernacular
Anise, ĀNISŪN (Ar., Pers. – sometimes also known as ĀNISŪN or YĀNISŪN), RAZYANA (Kurd., Wahby & Edmonds).

[FIQ]
Use
The fruits of the plant, Aniseed, are used in flavouring, particularly to flavour the local alcoholic grape-spirit in the N; this is known as ZAHLĀWI (after the Lebanese town of Zahle, a famous centre for the production of this type of ‘araq’) in distinction with the date-spirit of southern Iraq called MUSTAKIA which is flavoured with mastic, obtained from Pistacia lentiscus (see Fl. Iraq, vol. 4). Guest (1933) mentioned that, apart from any anise which may be grown locally, aniseed was imported into Iraq and on sale in the local markets. There was however some confusion between aniseed and the seed of the dill (Anisum graveolens q.v.), a plant of similar smell and appearance, also used as a condiment, as a vegetable and, medicinally; though the two plants can readily be distinguished by the layman by the white flowers of anise and the yellow flowers of dill. According to Wren (1956) aniseed was known to the ancients in many parts of the world and valued as a carminative. It is also used in cough medicines and lozenges as a pectoral and the powdered seeds are employed in conditioning condiments for horses. Rawi & Chakravarty (1964) add that it also possesses diuretic and diaphoretic properties and is used as a flavourant in some bakery products. Campbell Thompson (1949) considers that the name SAMRĀNU in the ancient Assyrian Medical Texts probably refers to anise.

Native to:

Cyprus, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Turkey

Introduced into:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Brazil South, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kriti, Laos, Leeward Is., Massachusetts, Michigan, Morocco, Norway, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Romania, South European Russi, Spain, Tadzhikistan, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Pimpinella anisum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jul 1, 1963 Gillies, J. [s.n.], Mendoza K000975625 holotype

First published in Sp. Pl.: 264 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Patzelt, A., Harrison, T., Knees, S.G. & Hartley, L.A. (2014). Studies in the flora of Arabia: XXXI. New records from the Sultanate of Oman Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 161-180.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of Iraq

  • Anth in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 289 (1935);
  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 866 (1872);
  • DC., Prodr. 4: 122 (1830);
  • Guest in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 27: 73 (1933);
  • Hayek, Prodr. Fl. Balc. 1: 999 (1927);
  • Husain & Kasim, Cult. Pl. Iraq 106 (1975);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 264 (1753);
  • Matthews in Fl. Turk. 4: 355 (1972);
  • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus 1: 745 (1977);
  • Pu Fading & Watson in Fl. China 14: 95 (2005).
  • Rawi & Chakr. in Dep. Agr. Iraq Tech. Bull. 15: 74 (1964);
  • Wolff in Pflanzenr. IV. 228, 90: 234 (1927);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palaest. 2: 425 (1972);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 1: 528 (1933);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Patzelt, A., Harrison, T., Knees, S.G. & Hartley, L.A. (2014). Studies in the flora of Arabia: XXXI. New records from the Sultanate of Oman Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 161-180.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000975625

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0