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This species is accepted, and its native range is Iraq to Central Asia and Myanmar.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FTEA]

Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, ± 25–65 cm. tall, much branched from near the base upwards except in depauperate plants, with long divergent or more divaricate branches; stem and branches glabrous, slender, striate and terete or the stem somewhat sulcate.
Morphology Leaves
Basal leaves withered at time of flowering; lowest stem leaves ± 5–14 × 2–6 cm., lamina broadly oblong or ovate, ± bi- or subtripinnate with 3–5 pairs of pinnae, basal pair sessile or with petiolules up to ± 5 mm.; pinnae rather irregularly divided into narrowly linear, glabrous, rather bluntly mucronate segments up to ± 1.4 cm. long and ± 0.5 mm. wide, with ± revolute margins and not dentate; petioles ± 2.5–8 cm. including the tapering, 8–12 mm., ribbed sheath; upper stem leaves reduced and more shortly petiolate and finally sessile but similar; uppermost leaves also much divided, but small.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels numerous, with 6–20 usually obviously unequal rays 5–21 mm. long, glabrous to minutely scabrid; involucre conspicuous, of 2–4 linear or sometimes trisect or ± pinnate, scabrid-margined, often unequal bracts 3–20 mm. long; partial umbels ± 8–24-flowered, pedicels 1–4 mm., minutely scabrid to subglabrous; involucel of ± 6–8 subulate bracteoles 1–5 mm. long, with scabrid margins; peduncles ± 2–8.5 cm., glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx with very short but distinct, broadly triangular, pale teeth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white or tinged with pink, obcordate with broad lobes, 1–1.25 mm., shortly white-hairy; anthers dark purplish black.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ovate, ± 2–2.5 × 1.75–2 mm., covered with white papillae or at the extreme apex frequently glabrous or almost so and deeply grooved, ribs prominent; stylopodia bluntly conical; styles slender, deflexed or flexuose, subequalling to twice as long as the stylopodia.
Figures
Fig. 14/8.
Habitat
Waste ground, presumably as an escape; ± 1950 m.
Distribution
the native area of this spice plant, widely grown in certain warmer regions of the Old World, seems unknownauthors in all areas from which it is mentioned as native seem invariably to refer it elsewhere. K4

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual to 60 cm or more, usually ± 40 cm, branched from near base, glabrous except in the fruit and inflorescence, and occasionally margins of upper leaf-sheaths ciliate
Morphology Stem
Stem and branches terete, striate
Morphology Leaves
Lower leaves long-petiolate, lamina oblong-lanceolate in outline, 2–3-pinnatisect, ultimate segments narrow-linear to almost capillary, up to ± 17 cm long, < 1 mm wide, mucronate; upper leaves similar, only uppermost simply pinnate, becoming sessile, all leaves with a short amplexicaul sheath
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles 1.5–6 cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucre of 3–6 bracts, which are most frequently narrow and entire but occasionally dentate or trifid, shorter than rays
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucel of 3–6 linear, simple bracteoles, subequalling rays of partial umbel
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Partial umbel rather close, 10–20-flowered, flowers ± 2 mm in diameter, petals pilose dorsally; anthers purplish black; pedicels 1–3 mm Umbels many, 4–12–rayed, rays 5–15 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ovoid, 1.5 mm long, broadest at or below middle, ± densely muricate with very short broad-based papillae
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles short, spreading or reflexed, shorter than to about equalling breadth of fruit.
Ecology
On the upper plains in fields; alt. 250–350 m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: May.
Distribution
Very rare in Iraq, only found, well over 100 years ago in two places in the moist steppe zone; no recent collections. Palestine (very rare), Arabia, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, China.
Note
Ajawan Caraway (Am.). Though occasionally found in ruderal habitat, in out of way places (e.g. a shipping yard in the Swedish island of Gotberg, on a refuse heap near granaries in Scotland at Glasgow) it is basically known only as a cultivated plant or as an adventive in secondary habitats such as fields, gardens, irrigation ditches etc. Burkill (1935) states that there was long a trade in the export of its seeds from India where it was widely cultivated for centuries. Its name in Sanskrit was YAMANI and, at the beginning of the Christian era, it had reached Greece, where it was called AMMI, via Egypt.

[FIQ]
Use
In India the seeds were much used as a carminative, to alleviate pain and for several other uses in folk medicine, and in China (Xinjiang) they are reputed to have medicinal value.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, Iran, Iraq, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Michigan, Morocco, Nicobar Is., Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Turkey, Xinjiang

Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
s.coll. [Cat. no. 572] Athamanta ajowan K001111313
s.coll. [Cat. no. 572] Athamanta ajowan K001111314
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 572], Nepal Athamanta ajowan K001111312
Roxburgh, W. [s.n.], India Trachyspermum copticum K000685642
Wallich [s.n.] Trachyspermum copticum K000685644
s.coll. [s.n.] Trachyspermum copticum K000685643

First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1929: 228 (1929)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1988). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 10: 1-590. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hadinec, J. & Lustyk, P. (2012). Additions to the flora of the Czech Republic. X Zprávy Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 47: 43-158.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • E. Nasir in Fl. Pak. 20: 72 (1972).
  • Schischkin in Fl. SSSR 16: 379 (1950);
  • Sprague in Turrill, Kew Bull. 1929 (7): 228 (1929);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palaest. 2: 417 (1972);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 1: 525 (1932);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1988). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 10: 1-590. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hadinec, J. & Lustyk, P. (2012). Additions to the flora of the Czech Republic. X Zprávy Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 47: 43-158.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1979). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 2: 1-220. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Sprague in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1929: 228 (1929).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0