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This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Xinjiang and W. Himalaya, N. Africa,.
Turgenia latifolia

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Stout annual, 10–40(–60) cm, hispid throughout
Morphology Stem
Stem sulcate, branched, ribs with long scabrid bristles, both ribs and furrows with short, close pubescence
Morphology Leaves
Leaves all similar, simply pinnate with 3 or 4 pairs of lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, sharply incised-dentate to pinnatifid, 10–55 × 3–25 mm segments, indumentum of upper surface strigulose and closely appressed, beneath also with long scabrid bristles on principal veins; lower leaves long-petiolate, deltoid-oblong in outline, with broad, white-margined sheaths contracting rather abruptly into the petiole, auriculate; upper leaves shorter, broadly deltoid, sessile on shorter sheaths
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucre of 2 or 3(rarely 5) mostly scarious, oblong-lanceolate, ± caducous bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Partial umbel of 6–16 deep rose-coloured or white flowers, outer petals somewhat larger but not conspicuously radiant as in the next species, 3–5 fructiferous Umbels many, leaf-opposed on mostly 1–11 cm peduncles, 2–5-rayed, rays 1.5–8.5 cm, indumentum similar to that of stem
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucel of usually 4–6 ovate or lanceolate-ovate membranous, broadly scarious-margined bracteoles, very conspicuous in bud and early flower
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit on short (± 2–5 mm) pedicels, ellipsoid, large and firm, 10–15 × 3 mm excluding the stout-based prickles, of which there are mostly 5–8 on each vertical row; primary ribs with a single row of spines, secondary ribs with (1–)2 rows; all ribs clothed with white wary papillae between spines, as are the faces between ribs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles very short, rigid, divergent.
Ecology
On mountains, sometimes on stony slopes in denuded Quercus wood, more commonly in fields, vineyards, on steppic hills and plains often on wasteland, by roadsides etc.; alt. 200–1400(–1850) m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: (Apr.–)May–Jun.
Distribution
Common in the forest zone of Iraq, occasional in the steppe region. W, C & S Europe, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Caucasus.
Note
?KHUMMĀSH (Ir.-Arbil province, Radhi 3843 – “grazed by livestock”); LUZZAIJ (“clingweed”, Ir.-Tal Kaif) or KHENJER (dagger-weed”, no doubt referring to the prickly fruit, Kurd.-Tal Kaif, Mudir of Tal Kaif 3199 – “useful for sheep grazing”); ?SEPĀN DIRRI (Kurd.-Ain Sifni, Salim 2575 – “fodder plant”). Whether or not these unconfirmed colloquial names from the steppe region are valid, the general consensus of opinion indicates that the plant is considered to be of some value for grazing. Schischkin (1950) remarks it is a common weed in crops.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Extinct in:

Belgium

Introduced into:

Buryatiya, Central European Rus, Great Britain, Irkutsk, Kamchatka, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Washington

Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoffm. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Maitland, T.D. [363], Lebanon K000315730
Maitland, T.D. [363], Lebanon K000315731

First published in Gen. Pl. Umbell.: 59 (1814)

Accepted by

  • Bergmeier, E. (2011). New floristic records, confirmations and other phytogeographical notes from Crete (Greece) Willdenowia 41: 167-177.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Nasir, E. (1972). Flora of West Pakistan 20: 1-169.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Blakelock in Kew Bull. 3: 437 (1948);
  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 1087 (1872);
  • Bornmuller in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 58B: 288 (1938);
  • Cullen in Fl. Turk. 4: 527 (1972);
  • DC., Prodr. 4: 218 (1830);
  • E. Nasir in Fl. Pak. 20: 109 (1972);
  • Grossh., Fl. Kavk. ed. 2, 7: 46 (1967);
  • H. Riedl in Fl. Lowland Iraq: 456 (1964);
  • Hayek, Prod. Fl. Balc. 1: 1054 (1927);
  • Hoffm. Gen. Umb. ed. 1: 59 (1814);
  • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus 1: 705 (1977);
  • Mouterde, Nouv. Fl. Lib. et Syr. 2: 601 (1970);
  • Pan Zehui & Watson in Fl. China 14: 29 (2005).
  • Rawi in Dep. Agr. Iraq Tech. Bull. 14: 96 (1964);
  • Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 162: 131 (1987);
  • Schischkin in Fl. SSSR 16: 174 (1951);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palaest. 2: 398 (1972);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 1: 572 (1932);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Hedge, I.C., Lamond, J.M. & Rechinger, K.H. (1987). Flora Iranica 162: 1-555. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Iraq
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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