1. Family: Cannabaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Celtis L.
      1. Celtis africana Burm.f.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula, Madagascar.

    [FWTA]

    Ulmaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    An understorey forest tree, to 50 ft. or more high
    Slash
    Slash mottled dark brown and grey.
    [FZ]

    Ulmaceae, C. M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

    Habit
    A spreading tree to 30(35) m. tall, or a shrub, mostly deciduous, monoecious; bole slightly fluted, bark smooth, whitish-grey often pinkish-blotched; freshly cut wood unpleasant-smelling; young stems and branches densely tawny pubescent-tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3–9 x 2.5–5.5 cm. (juvenile leaves up to 13 x 7 cm.), broadly or narrowly ovate to ovate-lanceolate; apex acuminate; base rounded to cuneate and strongly asymmetrical; margin coarsely dentate-serrate in the upper two thirds, rarely crenate or subentire; lamina thinly or thickly chartaceous, ± scabrous, young foliage often densely tawny-pubescent on both sides, later glabrescent except on nerves below; 3-nerved from the base, basal lateral nerves extending well into upper half, upper lateral nerves 1–2 on each side of the midrib, all lateral nerves prominent below; petiole 2.5–5(10) mm. long; stipules linear to linear-obovate, 3–8 mm. long, pubescent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences precocious; those cymes borne in the lower leaf axils and at the nodes below contain 3-many clustered male flowers on pedicels 1.5–5 mm. long; those cymes borne in the uppermost leaf axils contain 1-several bisexual flowers on pedicels 10–17 mm. long; intermediate cymules consisting of both male and bisexual flowers; axis and pedicels usually densely tawny-pubescent.
    Calyx
    Sepals 4–5, 1.5–2.5 mm. long, pubescent.
    Pistil
    Ovary densely pubescent; styles unbranched, 1.5–3.5(4) mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit orange, (4)5–7(8) x 3–6 mm. (dried), subglobose, less often ovoid-ellipsoid, pubescent; pedicels 10–25 mm. long.
    [FTEA]

    Ulmaceae, R. M. Polhill. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1966

    Habit
    Deciduous tree, 5–35 m. tall, with smooth grey bark and often slight horizontal annular ridges (ring marked).
    Twigs
    Young twigs tawny pubescent to tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 5–10.2 cm. long, 2–5.5 cm. wide, acuminate, rounded and a little unequal-sided at the base, serrate in the upper two-thirds, pubescent, ultimately subglabrous except on the nerves beneath, ± scabrous, with the basal lateral nerves extending well into the upper half and the upper prominent lateral nerves 1–2 on each side of the midrib; petiole 1–5 mm. long.
    Stipules
    Stipules linear, 4–6 mm. long, pubescent.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes in the lower leaf axils and at the nodes below of 3–15 clustered ♂ flowers with 1.5–4 mm. long pedicels; uppermost cymules of 1–several hermaphroditeflowers with long slender 10–17 mm. long pedicels; intermediate ones polygamous.
    Calyx
    Sepals 4–5, 1.5–3 mm. long, pubescent.
    Pistil
    Ovary densely hairy; styles unbranched, 2.5–4 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruits on 10–25 mm. long pedicels, subglobose, ± 5 mm. long, orange, pubescent.
    Habitat
    Dry evergreen and riverine forest, also upland rain-forest; 30–2400 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 T1 T2 T5 T7 U1 U2 U3 U4 Z widespread from Arabia to the Cape Province of South Africa and from the Sudan Republic to Nigeria and Angola

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Celtis africana Burm.f. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1982 Ethiopia K000442480 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1982 Schimper [1162], Ethiopia K000243035
    Ash [1963], Ethiopia 35536.000
    Ash [1539], Ethiopia 35709.000
    Robson, N.K.B. [579], Malawi K000285541
    Welwitch [6308], Angola K000243038
    Galpin, E.E. [1890], Cape Provinces K000243047
    Cape Province K000243048
    Cape Province K000243054
    Zeyher [570], Cape Province K000243052
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000243046
    Drege [8261.a.], Cape Province K000243049
    Drege [8261.b.], Cape Province K000243051
    Welw. [6307], Angola K000243037
    Welw. [6286], Angola K000243039
    Schult. [196], Cape Provinces K000243050
    Yalala, A.M. [152], Botswana K000285539
    Hansen, O.J. [3432], Botswana K000285540
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province Celtis kraussiana K000243053

    First published in Fl. Indica, Prodr. Fl. Cap.: 31 (1768)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1966). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Ulmaceae: 1-14.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Brenan in Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 9, 1: 75 (1954).
    • Prod. Fl. Cap. 31 (1768)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Polhill in Kew Bulletin 19: 139 (1964).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 22 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 574, fig. 104 (1961).
    • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 592 (1958).
    • Verdoorn in Fl. Pl. Afr. 31, t. 1210 (1956).
    • Brenan in Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 9: 75 (1954).
    • Burm. f., Prodr. Fl. Cap.: 31 (1768).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0