1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Anthurium Schott
      1. Anthurium scherzerianum Schott

        Anthurium scherzerianum is one of over 1,000 species in the genus Anthurium (the largest genus in the Araceae family) and was described by Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, Director of the Imperial Gardens at Vienna, in 1857. Schott was the earliest botanist to specialise almost exclusively in the Araceae. Anthurium scherzerianum and A. andraeanum are the only two scarlet anthuriums, and both are sometimes known by the common name 'flamingo flower'.

    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    Habitat
    Premontane rain, lower montane rain, and montane rain forest life zones on the Atlantic slope.
    Distribution
    Costa Rica: Atlantic slope of the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera de Talamanca. It has been collected most commonly in the Tapanti and La Hondura areas.
    General Description
    Epiphytic or terrestrial; stems very short, roots numerous, thin; cataphylls thick, to 1.5 cm long, caudate at apex, drying brown, persisting as fibers. LEAVES spreading; petioles terete, 4-20 cm long, 1-3 mm diam.; gcniculum 4-7 mm long; blades moderately thick, linear to elliptic or lanceolate, 5-26 cm long, 1.5-6.5 cm wide, narrowly acuminate at apex, obtuse to cuneate at base; upper surface semiglossy, the lower surface matte, both surfaces densely punctate; the midrib acutely raised above, sunken at apex; prominulous below; primary lateral veins 8-11 per side, departing midrib at 45° angle, nearly obscure above and below, loop-connecting to collective vein, lesser veins obscure; collective vein arising from near the base or one of the lowermost primary lateral veins, 1-3 mm from the margin. INFLORESCENCE erect, equalling or longer than leaves; the peduncle 14-52 cm long, ca. 2 mm diam.; spathe moderately thick, bright red-orange (B & K Red 7/2.5), elliptic to ovate, 3.7-12 cm long, 2.4-6 cm wide, abruptly short-acuminate at apex, cordate at base (the lobes sometimes overlapping); spadix pale orange to red, 2-8 cm long, ca. 4 mm diam. midway, tapered at apex and usually coiled; flowers square, 2 mm in both directions, the sides straight to ± sigmoid, 2-3 flowers visible in the principal spiral, 5-6 flowers visible in the alternate spiral; tepals glossy, sparsely and minutely papillate, lateral lepals ca. 1.3 mm long; pistil weakly emergent, somewhat translucent; stigma linear, 0.4-0.6 mm long; stamens emerging from base, the first lateral preceding second by 2-3 spirals, the laterals emerged well above midway before alternates emerge, exserted on flattened, short filaments, ca. 3 mm long, 0.5 mm wide; anthers white, held at edge of tepals, ca. 0.3 mm long, 0.5-0.7 mm wide; thecae cllipsoid, slightly divaricate; pollen white. INFRUCTESCENCE with orange to red berries.
    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    These popular houseplants are known as flamingo flowers owing to the resemblance of the flowering parts to the body and twisted neck of a flamingo.

    Anthurium scherzerianum is one of over 1,000 species in the genus Anthurium (the largest genus in the Araceae family) and was described by Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, Director of the Imperial Gardens at Vienna, in 1857. Schott was the earliest botanist to specialise almost exclusively in the Araceae. Anthurium scherzerianum and A. andraeanum are the only two scarlet anthuriums, and both are sometimes known by the common name 'flamingo flower'.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    This species is found in Costa Rica at elevations of 1,300 to 2,100 m. It occurs in montane rainforest on the Atlantic slope of the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera de Talamanca.

    This perennial species shows a clump-forming habit, and may grow on trees (as an epiphyte) or on the ground (terrestrial).

    Description

    Anthurium scherzerianum has spreading, oblong to elliptic, leathery leaves, up to 25 cm long and 8 cm wide. The leaf blades are held on a petiole (leaf stalk) up to 20 cm long. Both sides of the leaf blade are dotted with minute dark glands. The large, showy spathe (8 to 10 cm long) is scarlet to orange-red and broadly oval. The orange-red spadix is usually coiled upward and may be up to 8 cm long. Euglossine bees are possible pollinators. The fruits are orange to red.

    Cultivars of this species include Anthurium scherzerianum 'Album' with a white spathe and yellow spadix, 'Rothschildianum' with a densely white-dotted spathe and 'Wardii' with a large ruby-red spathe and long red spadix.

    Uses

    Anthuriums became fashionable as house plants during the nineteenth century. They are prized for their showy appearance and the longevity of cut stalks in water, which may last up to eight weeks. Numerous hybrids and cultivars of Anthurium scherzerianum have been developed for both these characteristics.

    The popularity of anthuriums as ornamentals led to a rapid rise in their value in the horticulture and cut-flower industries. Anthuriums were historically grown in the shade of cocoa and citrus in producing regions such as Trinidad and Tobago. Today, plants are grown intensively under cover and are often multiplied using micropropagation techniques. The inflorescences are graded for the cut flower industry according to the width of the spathe.

    Some species of Anthurium are used traditionally in medicine or to perfume tobacco.

    Cultivation

    Anthurium scherzerianum is commonly found in cultivation throughout the world, and many different forms are recognised.

    It is cultivated in the aroid zone of the Tropical Nursery, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew. Here, plants are mounted on cork-oak bark ( Quercus suber ) with flat moss, which helps to keep the roots moist. Alternatively, they can be grown in a compost mix with a high organic content. The plants are kept at about 25 °C and 85% relative humidity. They are watered or heavily misted every day (twice a day during the summer) and benefit from a weekly feed. The plants are protected from high light intensity in the nursery during summer by the use of automatic shading.

    This species at Kew

    Stunning examples of Anthurium scherzerianum can be seen as part of the annual Tropical Extravaganza festival in the Princess of Wales Conservatory. This species is also grown in the Tropical Nursery (one of the behind-the-scenes area of Kew).

    Distribution
    Costa Rica
    Ecology
    Montane rainforest. This species is epiphytic (growing on trees) or terrestrial (growing on the ground).
    Conservation
    Not yet assessed according to IUCN criteria.
    Hazards

    All parts of the plant may have irritant effects when handled.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Costa Rica

    Common Names

    English
    Flamingo flower

    Anthurium scherzerianum Schott appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Costa Rica K000434364
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000434362
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000434363 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.], Costa Rica K000434366

    First published in Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 53 (1857)

    Accepted by

    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • Mabberley, D.J. (2008). Mabberley's Plant-Book. A Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. 3rd Ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bown, D. (2000). Aroids: plants of the Arum Family. Timber Press.

    Sources

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0