1. Family: Moraceae Gaudich.
    1. Genus: Ficus Tourn. ex L.
      1. Ficus sycomorus L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa to Syria.

    [FTEA]

    Moraceae, C.C. Berg (University of Bergen). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Tree up to 20(–30) m. tall; trunk short; main branches spreading.
    Twigs
    Leafy twigs (1–)2–6 mm. thick, densely minutely puberulous and with much longer white to yellowish hairs especially on the nodes; periderm flaking off when dry.
    Leaves
    Lamina chartaceous to coriaceous, ovate to elliptic, obovate or subcircular, (1–)2.5–12(–21) × (0.5–)2–11(–16) cm., apex rounded to obtuse, base cordate to sometimes obtuse, margin subentire, slightly repand or denticulate; upper surface scabrous to scabridulous, sometimes almost smooth, hispidulous to strigillose, on the main veins whitish hirtellous to hirsute, lower surface puberulous to hispidulous, on the main veins partly whitish hirtellous or hirsute; lateral veins 5–10 pairs; petiole (0.5–)1–4(–6) cm. long, 1–3 mm. thick, densely minutely white puberulous and with much longer white to yellowish hairs, with the periderm flaking off when dry; stipules 0.5–2.5 cm. long, white puberulous to tomentose or partly hirtellous to hirsute, caducous.
    Infructescences
    Figs solitary or sometimes in pairs in the leaf-axils or just below the leaves, on up to 10 cm. long unbranched leafless branchlets or on up to 20(–35) cm. long branched leafless branchlets on the older branches down to the trunk; peduncle 0.3–2.5 cm. long, 1–3 mm. thick; basal bracts 2–3 mm. long.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle obovoid to pyriform or subglobose, often stipitate at least when dry, 1.5–5 cm. in diameter when fresh, (1–)1.5–3 cm. when dry, white to yellowish or brownish velutinous or densely tomentose to sparsely puberulous or pubescent, sometimes almost glabrous, yellowish to reddish at maturity.
    Habitat
    Forest edges, lakesides, riverine, extending into drier country especially where seasonal water collects at foot of hills and scarps, rock outcrops; 0–2200 m.
    Distribution
    extending to Egypt, Syria, the Arabian Peninsula, the Cape Verde Is., South Africa and Namibia K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
    [FZ]

    Moraceae, C. C. Berg. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

    Habit
    Tree up to 20(30) m. tall, trunk short, up to c. 2 m. diam., main branches spreading.
    Twigs
    Leafy twigs 2–6 mm. thick, densely, minutely puberulous and with much longer, white to yellowish hairs, especially on the nodes; periderm flaking off when dry.
    Leaves
    Leaf lamina ovate to elliptic, or obovate to subcircular (1)2.5–12(21) x (0.5)2–11(16) cm., chartaceous to coriaceous, apex rounded to obtuse, base cordate sometimes obtuse, margin subentire, slightly repand or denticulate; superior surface scabrous to scabridulous, sometimes almost smooth or hispidulous to strigillose, the main veins whitish hirtellous to hirsute, inferior surface puberulous to hispidulous, the main veins sparsely whitish hirtellous to hirsute; lateral veins 5–10 pairs; petiole (0.5)1–4(6) cm. long, 1–3 mm. thick, densely, minutely white puberulous and with much longer white to yellowish hairs, with the periderm flaking off when dry; stipules 5–25 mm. long, white puberulous to tomentose or partly hirtellous to hirsute, caducous.
    Fruits
    Figs solitary or sometimes in pairs in the leaf axils or just below the leaves on unbranched, leafless branchlets up to 20 cm. long, or on branched, leafless branchlets up to 20(35) cm. long, or borne on the older branches down to the trunk; peduncle 3–25 mm. long, 1–3 mm. thick; basal bracts 2–3 mm. long.
    Receptacle
    Receptacle obovoid to pyriform or subglobose, often stipitate, at least when dry, 1.5–5 cm. in diam. when fresh, (1)1.5–3 cm. in diam. when dry, velutinous or densely tomentose to sparsely puberulous or pubescent, sometimes almost glabrous, yellowish to reddish at maturity.
    [FWTA]

    Moraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A tree to 60 ft. high, with pale trunk and widespreading crown
    Indumentum
    Pilose branchlets and scabrid leaves
    Ecology
    Generally by streams in the savannah regions.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Palestine, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Sycomore fig

    Ficus sycomorus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1983 Sim, T. R. [5644], Mozambique K000243368 Unknown type material
    Verdcourt, B. [1532], Kenya 22921.000
    Verdcourt, B. [3762], Kenya 29047.040
    Ash [384], Ethiopia 33268.000
    Richards, H.M. [13107], Zambia 22752.000
    Richards, H.M. [13176], Zambia 23420.000
    Richards, H.M. [14805], Botswana 23749.000
    Polhill, R. [1141], Tanzania 22940.000
    White, F. [2185], Zambia 15966.000
    White, F. [2922], Zambia 15971.000
    White, F. [2208], Zambia 15972.000
    White, F. [1832], Zambia 16917.000
    Story, R. [4811], Botswana K000489682
    Angus, A. [288], Zambia 13142.000
    Angus, A. [1026], Zambia 15965.000
    Sangster, R.G. [512], Uganda 16920.000
    Erens, J. [328], Botswana K000489681
    Richards, M. [14805], Botswana K000489680
    Vercourt, B., Kenya 35948.000
    Pope, G.V. [337], Botswana K000489683
    Smith, P. [56], Botswana K000489684
    Smith, P. [56], Botswana K000489685
    Smith, P. [56], Botswana K000489686
    Headley, P.M. [231], Ethiopia 7506.000
    Baron, R. [4885], Madagascar K000243427
    Baron, R. [4660], Madagascar K000243428
    Baron, R. [4965], Madagascar K000243429
    Hildebrandt, J.M. [1650], Madagascar K000243431 Unknown type material
    Long, D.G. [226], Botswana K000489688
    Humblot, L. [164], Madagascar K000243430
    Mott, P.J. [1065], Botswana K000489687
    Son, F. van [26949], Botswana K000489689
    Tanzania Ficus gnaphalocarpa 30372.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [2932], Zambia Ficus gnaphalocarpa 16904.000
    Troupin, G. [3048], Rwanda Ficus gnaphalocarpa 11089.000
    Ash [1498], Ethiopia Ficus gnaphalocarpa 35613.000
    Ash [961], Ethiopia Ficus gnaphalocarpa 37365.000
    Dubois, R. [111], Mali Ficus gnaphalocarpa K000386630
    Sihvonen, J. [204], Burkina Faso Ficus gnaphalocarpa K000386629
    Hepper, F.N. [4192], Chad Ficus sycomorus subsp. gnaphalocarpa 43836.000
    Kotschy [518], Ethiopia Ficus sycomorus subsp. gnaphalocarpa K000243281 Unknown type material
    Kotschy [518], Ethiopia Ficus sycomorus subsp. gnaphalocarpa K000243282 Unknown type material

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Berg, C.C. & Hijman, M.E.E. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Moraceae: 1-95.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 449 (1982).
    • Aweke in Meded. Landb. Wageningen 79-3: 72, fig. 18 (1979).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 30, t. 6B (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 321 (1961).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 263, fig. 92 (1952).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 260 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 355 (1949).
    • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika 2: 90 (1932).
    • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(2): 95 (1916).
    • Mildbr. & Burret in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 46: 191 (1911).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 1059 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/