1. Family: Caprifoliaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Valeriana L.
      1. Valeriana capensis Thunb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Valerianaceae, J. O. Kokwaro (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Perennial gynodioecious herb l.2–8(–14) dm. tall in flower, 1.5–10 dm. tall in fruit; rhizomes 3–7 mm. thick; fibrous roots 2–4 mm. thick; sometimes stoloniferous; stems erect, herbaceous, leafy at the base, l–4(–9) mm. thick, unbranched at the nodes (inflorescence sometimes branched but these branches supported by bracts); nodes solid and densely hairy, usually with shallow parallel ribs extending full length, terete to almost angled.
    Leaves
    Leaves membranous, predominantly imparipinnate but sometimes pinnatifid and occasionally undivided, with 1–9 regularly or irregularly arranged pairs of essentially sessile leaflets, mostly obovate to oblanceolate; basal ones loosely tufted; lowermost 7–44 cm. long, 1–10 cm. wide; cauline ones in 3–5 pairs, simulating the basal but smaller; uppermost bract-like; terminal leaflets ovate to lanceolate, 2.2–11.4 cm. long, 0.7–5.5 cm. wide, entire to dentate; lateral leaflets similar but smaller.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a dichasial thyrse 1.5–30(–74) cm. long, l.3–15(–21) cm. wide, subcapitate in the early stage; floral bracts linear-lanceolate, 0.6–2.0 cm. long, 0.7–2.5 mm. wide, acuminate; internodes glabrous or pilose along one side; nodes tufted-pilose.
    Flowers
    Flowers perfect or imperfect, white to pale pinkish-mauve.
    Calyx
    Calyx-limb 8–14-fid; segments forming a feathery pappus in fruit.
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, gibbous, sometimes irregular, 2.0–5.5 mm. long, densely to sparsely white hairy at the base of the throat within, glabrous without.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3, exserted (± twice the length of the corolla-lobes); anthers 4-lobed.
    Style
    Style unbranched at first, later opening into 3-lobed tip, exserted, generally the same length as the stamens.
    Fruits
    Achenes 2.5–5.5 mm. long, 1.2–2.5 mm. wide, glabrous, light-brown.
    Habitat
    Upland grassland and upland moor, upland rain-forest at forest margins, by streamsides, in marshy ground or under overhanging dripping rock-faces; 1500–3400 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 T2 T7 T8 Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia and Rhodesia south to the Cape Province of South Africa
    [FZ]

    Valerianaceae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Erect perennial herbs of up to 1 m. at maturity, with fleshy rhizomes and fibrous roots; stolons occasionally present.
    Stem
    Stems simple and unbranched below the inflorescence; generally glabrous except at the prominent nodes, but may rarely be quite densely covered with long, lax white hairs; internodes generally with well–developed ridges.
    Leaves
    Leaves mainly basal, but also present as 3–5 gradually reduced opposite pairs on the stem; most commonly pinnate, sometimes pinnatifid, more rarely subentire; terminal leaflets larger than the lateral ones, subrotund to linear–lanceolate, up to 13 cm. long; lateral leaflets ± irregularly dentate, becoming reduced in size towards the petiole. Basal leaves generally with long petioles of up to 18 cm. (the length probably much dependant on the density of surrounding vegetation).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a dichasial thyrse, initially subcapitate, but often expanding into a system of up to 30 x 10 cm. (even larger inflorescence have been reported from outside our area). Bracts linear to linear–lanceolate, 0·5–2 x 1–3 mm., sometimes with small lateral lobes. Inflorescence axis and branches generally glabrous with pubescent nodes, but may be sparsely hairy like the main stem.
    Flowers
    Flowers perfect or imperfect.
    Calyx
    Calyx inrolled at anthesis, limb segments forming a feathery pappus in fruit.
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, white sometimes flushed with pink and distinctly pink in bud; slightly irregular, up to 5 mm. long; throat often with long, dense white hairs, exterior glabrous.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3, distinctly exserted at anthesis, on long slender filaments.
    Style
    Style slender, with 3–lobed stigmatic surface at maturity, slightly exceeding the filaments.
    Fruits
    Achenes 3–5 x 1·5–3 mm., narrowly ovoid, strongly compressed, glabrous with 6 distinct filiform ribs, 3 dorsal, 1 ventral and 2 marginal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cape Provinces, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Valeriana capensis Thunb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1957 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K000252341 paratype
    Evans, M. [368], South Africa K000252339
    Baur, R. [546], South Africa K000252340 Unknown type material
    Harris, T. [331], Mozambique K000613767
    Patel, H. [7363], Mozambique K000613625

    First published in Prodr. Pl. Cap.: 7 (1794)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1983). Flora Zambesiaca 7(1): 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1983). Flora Zambesiaca 7(1): 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Meyer in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 55: 766 (1958).
    • Pillans in Flora of Cape Peninsula: 738 (1950).
    • Thonner, Blütenpfl. Afr., t. 146 (1908).
    • Thunb., Fl. Cap: 145 (1811).
    • Thunb., Prodr. Pl. Cap. 1: 7 (1784)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0