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This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to N. Turkey and W. Caucasus.
Arum maculatum

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

Distribution
Throughout Europe, from N Spain to the Caucasus, and from S Sweden to N Greece. Although occurring in Scandinavia, many of the records from this region are referable to Arum cylindraceum.
Habitat
Open deciduous woodland, forest edges, hedgerows; wasteland in ruderal habitats.
General Description
Tuberous herb sprouting in late winter to early spring from a rhizomatous tuber 3-6 cm long, 2-2.5 cm thick. Petiole terete to D-shaped in cross-section, 9-53 cm long, 6-11 terete to D-shaped in cross-section, 9-53 cm long, 6-11 mm wide, mid-green to deep green. mm wide, mid-green to deep green. Leaf- blade sagittate-hastate to oblong-hastate or oblong-lanceolate-hastate, apex acute to obtuse, 7-27 cm long, 3.5-19 cm wide, mid-green to deep green, often lightly to heavily marked with jagged, purple-black spots and patches, these often bullate. INFLORESCENCE smelling moderately of sour urine. Peduncle much shorter than or equalling the leaves, terete, 4-26 cm long, 6-8 mm wide, mid-green to deep green. Spathe 6.5-27 cm long, spathe-tube ovoid-oblong, 1.5-5 cm long, 1.2.5 cm wide, moderately to rather strongly constricted apically, exterior pale to mid-green, interior greenish white, usually with a c.5 mm wide purple band around the middle, more rarely the tube apex may be suffused with purple within; spathe-limb elliptic-ovate to lanceolate-elliptic, or narrowly lanceolate, 5-22 cm long, 3-12 cm wide, erect, acuminate to acute, the tip tending to droop as the inflorescence ages, externally pale to mid-green, the margins occasionally suffused with purple, rarely the whole exterior mid-purple, internally greenish white to yellowish green, often similarly spotted to the foliage, more rarely pale yellow or flushed with pink to mid-purple, very rarely wholly mid-purple. Spadix 1/3 - ½ as long as the spathe-limb, 4-14 cm in total length; appendix slender-clavate to subcylindric, rarely broadly clavate or conical, long-stipitate, 2.5-9 cm long, 2.5-9 mm wide, deep purple to pale yellow, more rarely dull brown, stipe usually darker. Staminodes in 5 or 6 whorls forming a zone 3-9 mm long; bristles filiform, flexuous, 5-6 mm long, purple to violet; bases conic, weakly verrucate, pale yellow. Interstices: upper 0-3 mm long with some rudimentary staminode bases, pale cream; lower similar. Staminate flowers in an oblong to quadrate zone 1.5-7 mm long, 2.7.5 mm in an oblong to quadrate zone 1.5-7 mm long, 2.7.5 mm wide, anthers and connectives dark to mid-purple. Pistillodes in 1-3 whorls forming a zone 2.5-7 mm long; bristles filiform to aristate, flexuous, 2.5-3 mm long, purple to violet; bases bulbiform to compressed-triangular, ± smooth, pale yellow. Pistillate flowers in a cylindric to globose-cylindric cluster 8-21 mm long; ovaries ellipsoid-oblong, 2-3.5 mm long, cream to very pale greenish yellow, purple apically, stigma white. 8-21 mm long; ovaries ellipsoid-oblong, 2-3.5 mm long, cream to very pale greenish yellow, purple apically, stigma white. Fruiting spike cylindric to oblong-cylindric, 2.5-5 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide; berries oblong-ovoid, 4-11 mm long, 3.5-5 mm wide. Germination hypogeal.
Phenology
Flowering mid-April to late May, with inflorescences opening sporadically into early June.
Diagnostic
Tuber rhizomatous. Inflorescence held beneath the leaves. Spathe-limb usually greenish-white. Staminate flowers purple before anthesis. (similar to Arum byzantinum and Arum italicum)

[CATE]

CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

Diagnostic
Plant small. Tuber rhizomatous. Spathe-limb pale green with brownish purple staining, spadix-appendix slender and purple. Pistillodes, staminodes and staminate flowers purple. (similar to Arum maculatum and Arum italicum)
General Description
Tuberous herb sprouting in late autumn from a rhizomatous tuber 5-7 cm long, 1.5-2.5 cm thick. Petiole terete, 13-55 cm long, 3-5 mm wide, dull mid-green, tinged and obscurely striped with purple for at least some of its length. Leaf- blade oblong-hastate to triangular, apex acute to obtuse or rounded, 12-25 cm long, 7-18 cm wide, dark green, occasionally with sparse, purple-black spotting. INFLORESCENCE smelling weakly of stale urine. Peduncle shorter than to subequal to the leaves, 5.5-20 cm long, 3-4 mm wide, terete, dull green, lightly stained with purple below. Spathe 8.5-25.5 cm long; spathe-tube ventricose, 2-4.5 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide, constricted apically, exterior pale green ± stained with brownish purple, interior pale greenish white; spathe-limb narrowly elliptic-lanceolate, 6.5-21 cm long, 1,7-8 cm wide, erect, acute to acuminate, the apical portion drooping as the inflorescence ages, externally pale green with light brownish purple staining, especially towards the margins, internally similarly coloured, but with the staining much more pronounced, particularly along the margins. Spadix less than ½ as long as the limb, 4.5-10 cm in total length; appendix slender-clavate, long-stipitate, 2.8-5 cm long, 2-6(-7) mm wide, purple, the stipe somewhat darker. Staminodes in c. 3 whorls, forming a zone 2.5-6 mm long; bristles filiform, 2.5-6 mm long, pale purple; bases conic, verrucate, cream. Interstices: upper 2-2.5 mm long, ± smooth, cream, lower 0.5-1 mm long, with scattered vestigial sterile flowers, cream. Staminate flowers in a ± quadrate zone 1.5-4 mm long, 1.5-3 mm wide; anthers purple and connectives dull yellow. Pistillodes in c . 3 whorls, forming a zone 2.5-4 mm long; bristles filiform, flexuous, 2.5-4 mm long, pale purple; bases laterally compressed-conic, verrucate, cream. Pistillate flowers in an oblong-cylindric cluster 3.5-16 mm long; ovaries oblong, truncate apically, 1.5-2.5 mm long, pale yellowish green, stained with purple apically, stigma darker. Fruiting spike cylindric, 4.5-7 cm long; berries oblong-ovoid, 3.5-9 mm long, 3.5-4 mm wide. Germination unknown.
Habitat
Deciduous woodland, damp banks and hedgerows.
Distribution
NW Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe).
Phenology
Flowering late May to early June.

Native to:

Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Denmark

Arum maculatum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
29047.075
Stevens, N., Yugoslavia 49817.000
Boyce, P., United Kingdom 49823.000
Mayo 51398.000
Stevens, N., Yugoslavia 51400.000
Boyce, P., United Kingdom 51429.000
Mayo, S. 51430.000
Boyce, P. [162], United Kingdom 51436.000
Mayo, S. 51440.000
Boyce, P., United Kingdom 52100.000
Koenen, M. [4750], Turkey 55959.000
Koenen [2090], Turkey 57574.000
Koenen [2090], Turkey 58921.000
Day, C.D. [313], Turkey K000341695
Cope, T.A. [RBG 344], United Kingdom K000914487
Büchèr, T. [s.n.], Denmark K000499287 Unknown type material
Jul 23, 1982 Baytop, A. [7630], Turkey Arum byzantinum K000400426
Stevens, N., Turkey Arum byzantinum 49834.000
Christian, P. [CGH555], Turkey Arum byzantinum 49835.000
unknown [s.n.] Arum byzantinum K000400425
Jul 21, 1982 Sintenis, P. [2049], Turkey Arum orientale subsp. amoenum K000400325

First published in Sp. Pl.: 966 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.

Literature

CATE Araceae

  • Boyce, P.C. 1993. The Genus Arum. 196 pp.

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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