1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Arum L.
      1. Arum maculatum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe, N. Turkey to W. Caucasus.

    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    Distribution
    Throughout Europe, from N Spain to the Caucasus, and from S Sweden to N Greece. Although occurring in Scandinavia, many of the records from this region are referable to Arum cylindraceum.
    Habitat
    Open deciduous woodland, forest edges, hedgerows; wasteland in ruderal habitats.
    General Description
    Tuberous herb sprouting in late winter to early spring from a rhizomatous tuber 3-6 cm long, 2-2.5 cm thick. Petiole terete to D-shaped in cross-section, 9-53 cm long, 6-11 terete to D-shaped in cross-section, 9-53 cm long, 6-11 mm wide, mid-green to deep green. mm wide, mid-green to deep green. Leaf- blade sagittate-hastate to oblong-hastate or oblong-lanceolate-hastate, apex acute to obtuse, 7-27 cm long, 3.5-19 cm wide, mid-green to deep green, often lightly to heavily marked with jagged, purple-black spots and patches, these often bullate. INFLORESCENCE smelling moderately of sour urine. Peduncle much shorter than or equalling the leaves, terete, 4-26 cm long, 6-8 mm wide, mid-green to deep green. Spathe 6.5-27 cm long, spathe-tube ovoid-oblong, 1.5-5 cm long, 1.2.5 cm wide, moderately to rather strongly constricted apically, exterior pale to mid-green, interior greenish white, usually with a c.5 mm wide purple band around the middle, more rarely the tube apex may be suffused with purple within; spathe-limb elliptic-ovate to lanceolate-elliptic, or narrowly lanceolate, 5-22 cm long, 3-12 cm wide, erect, acuminate to acute, the tip tending to droop as the inflorescence ages, externally pale to mid-green, the margins occasionally suffused with purple, rarely the whole exterior mid-purple, internally greenish white to yellowish green, often similarly spotted to the foliage, more rarely pale yellow or flushed with pink to mid-purple, very rarely wholly mid-purple. Spadix 1/3 - ½ as long as the spathe-limb, 4-14 cm in total length; appendix slender-clavate to subcylindric, rarely broadly clavate or conical, long-stipitate, 2.5-9 cm long, 2.5-9 mm wide, deep purple to pale yellow, more rarely dull brown, stipe usually darker. Staminodes in 5 or 6 whorls forming a zone 3-9 mm long; bristles filiform, flexuous, 5-6 mm long, purple to violet; bases conic, weakly verrucate, pale yellow. Interstices: upper 0-3 mm long with some rudimentary staminode bases, pale cream; lower similar. Staminate flowers in an oblong to quadrate zone 1.5-7 mm long, 2.7.5 mm in an oblong to quadrate zone 1.5-7 mm long, 2.7.5 mm wide, anthers and connectives dark to mid-purple. Pistillodes in 1-3 whorls forming a zone 2.5-7 mm long; bristles filiform to aristate, flexuous, 2.5-3 mm long, purple to violet; bases bulbiform to compressed-triangular, ± smooth, pale yellow. Pistillate flowers in a cylindric to globose-cylindric cluster 8-21 mm long; ovaries ellipsoid-oblong, 2-3.5 mm long, cream to very pale greenish yellow, purple apically, stigma white. 8-21 mm long; ovaries ellipsoid-oblong, 2-3.5 mm long, cream to very pale greenish yellow, purple apically, stigma white. Fruiting spike cylindric to oblong-cylindric, 2.5-5 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide; berries oblong-ovoid, 4-11 mm long, 3.5-5 mm wide. Germination hypogeal.
    Phenology
    Flowering mid-April to late May, with inflorescences opening sporadically into early June.
    Diagnostic
    Tuber rhizomatous. Inflorescence held beneath the leaves. Spathe-limb usually greenish-white. Staminate flowers purple before anthesis. (similar to Arum byzantinum and Arum italicum)

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Denmark

    Arum maculatum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    29047.075
    Mayo, S. 51430.000
    Mayo, S. 51440.000
    Boyce, P., United Kingdom 49823.000
    Boyce, P., United Kingdom 51429.000
    Boyce, P. [162], United Kingdom 51436.000
    Boyce, P., United Kingdom 52100.000
    Mayo 51398.000
    Koenen, M. [4750], Turkey 55959.000
    Stevens, N., Yugoslavia 49817.000
    Stevens, N., Yugoslavia 51400.000
    Koenen [2090], Turkey 57574.000
    Koenen [2090], Turkey 58921.000
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 344], United Kingdom K000914487
    Day, C.D. [313], Turkey K000341695
    Büchèr, T. [s.n.], Denmark K000499287 Unknown type material
    Jul 21, 1982 Sintenis, P. [2049], Turkey Arum orientale subsp. amoenum K000400325

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 966 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.

    Sources

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0