1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Avicennia L.
      1. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree 1–9 m. tall or even attaining 15 m. when left in favourable conditions; bark brownish yellow-green, smooth.
    Stem
    Pneumatophores 10–25(–40) cm. long. Stems finely grey-tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades elliptic or ovate-elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, 3–12 cm. long, 1.5–5 cm. wide, acute to acuminate or even obtuse at the apex, cuneate at the base, green or yellow-green and glabrous above, minutely silvery grey or whitish tomentose beneath, glaucous, sometimes blackening on drying; petiole 3–8(–14) mm. long, gradually passing into the lamina.
    Flowers
    Flowers in small dense heads 0.7–1.2 cm. diameter, with 3 heads per terminal inflorescence but lateral branches originating from lower leaflets or leafy nodes; sometimes a pair of additional opposite flowers borne on central peduncle well below the head; bracts and bracteoles ovate or ± round, concave, adpressed to calyx, 2–4 mm. long, 1.5–3 mm. wide, acute, ciliate.
    Calyx
    Sepals ovate, elliptic or ± round, 3.5–4 mm. long, 2.5–3 mm. wide, obtuse, ± densely ciliate and tomentose outside.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow, apricot or dark orange, turning black; tube 2–3 mm. long, glabrous; lobes ovate, 2.5–4 mm. long, 2–3 mm. wide, pubescent outside.
    Anthers
    Anthers sulphur-yellow turning black.
    Pistil
    Ovary yellow-green, narrowly conical, 2.5 mm. long, pubescent above, glabrous below; style 0.8 mm. long, glabrous, 2-fid.
    Fruits
    Capsule subglobose, broadly ellipsoid or ovoid, usually not beaked when mature, 1.2–3 cm. long, 0.7–2.5 cm. wide, velvety scaly-tomentose.
    Seeds
    Seed usually single, compressed.
    Figures
    Fig. 21.
    Habitat
    Locally dominant in sandier parts and inland fringes of mangrove associations, sandy dunes, mud of tidal rivers and salty creeks, colonizes new mud banks; sea-level
    Distribution
    Egypt to South Africa (Transkei, Kentani), Madagascar, Seychelles, Aldabra, Comoro Is., Persian Gulf to Pakistan, S. India, Sri Lanka, Andaman Is., Malay Peninsula, Indochina, Philippines, N. Borneo, Sarawak, China (incl. Hainan), Taiwan, Japan and a variety in Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia and Solomon Is. (detailed Malesian distribution omitted as very confused). K7 P T3 T6 T8 Z
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from “islands and shores of Red Sea (Al Luhaygah). *
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles 2–3 mm long, ovate to broadly ovate, concave, obtuse or rounded at the apex, ciliate, glabrous on the inner face, densely silvery-tomentose or sericeous on the outside, finally glabrescent, closely appressed to the calyx Bracts and bracteoles 2–3 mm long, ovate to broadly ovate, concave, obtuse or rounded at the apex, ciliate, glabrous on the inner face, densely silvery-tomentose or sericeous on the outside, finally glabrescent, closely appressed to the calyx.
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant Flowers fragrant.
    Calyx
    Calyx green; lobes 2–4 mm long, ovate or broadly ovate to elliptic, rounded at the apex, densely tomentellous outside, fimbriate-ciliate on the margins, persistent Calyx green; lobes 2–4 mm long, ovate or broadly ovate to elliptic, rounded at the apex, densely tomentellous outside, fimbriate-ciliate on the margins, persistent.
    Corolla
    Corolla white at first, turning yellow or orange to dark orange or reddish-orange, becoming blackish when dry, rigid, caducous; tube 1–2 mm long, glabrous; lobes 3–4 mm long, ovate, densely tomentellous or sericeous outside, glabrous inside Corolla white at first, turning yellow or orange to dark orange or reddish-orange, becoming blackish when dry, rigid, caducous; tube 1–2 mm long, glabrous; lobes 3–4 mm long, ovate, densely tomentellous or sericeous outside, glabrous inside.
    Filaments
    Filaments erect; anthers subequalling the filaments, suborbicular, sulphur-yellow, turning black Filaments erect; anthers subequalling the filaments, suborbicular, sulphur-yellow, turning black.
    Fruits
    Capsule 1.2–3 × 0.7–2 cm, subglobose, broadly ellipsoid or ovoid, somewhat asymmetric and abruptly tapering into a short narrow apical beak at least when young, yellowish or pale to greyish-green densely powdery-puberulent, the calyx and involucre persisting unchanged Capsule 1.2–3 × 0.7–2 cm, subglobose, broadly ellipsoid or ovoid, somewhat asymmetric and abruptly tapering into a short narrow apical beak at least when young, yellowish or pale to greyish-green densely powdery-puberulent, the calyx and involucre persisting unchanged.
    Seeds
    Seed large, compressed, germinating within the fruit while still on the tree Seed large, compressed, germinating within the fruit while still on the tree.
    Cotyledons
    Cotyledons reniform, light green. Cotyledons reniform, light green.
    Ecology
    Intertidal zone mudflats and sandy shores, and the estuaries and tidal river banks (brackish water)
    Note
    It is a common and often dominant constituent of mangrove swamps (usually the inland fringes of mangrove associations), and is also a pioneer of new mud banks; sea level.   The bark is rich tannin and yields a brown dye The wood is durable and is used in boat building and for the ribs of dhows in East Africa.
    Distribution
    Mozambique District code: MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M. Widely distributed along the shores of the western Indian Ocean (east Africa from Egypt to the Cape including the Seychelles, the Comoros, the Mozambique Channel Islands, Madagascar and the Mascareignes); also along the coasts of the Red Sea, Persian Gulf
    Habit
    Usually a small evergreen tree 3–4 m tall, sometimes to 10(12) m tall, with a much-branched rounded crown and an extensive widely spreading horizontal root system, less often a shrub; roots, particularly in muddy places, giving rise to numerous erect pencil-like pneumatophores, 10–38 cm tall. Usually a small evergreen tree 3–4 m tall, sometimes to 10(12) m tall, with a much-branched rounded crown and an extensive widely spreading horizontal root system, less often a shrub; roots, particularly muddy places, giving rise to numerous erect pencil-like pneumatophores, 10–38 cm tall
    Trunk
    Trunk ± stout, up to c. 25 cm in diameter, sometimes with aerial ‘breathing’ roots (not reaching the ground) on the lower portion; bark smooth and somewhat powdery, whitish or yellow-green; branchlets decussate, slender, subterete or quadrangular, with a densely pulverulent (powdery)-puberulent whitish or greyish thin outer bark, nodes swollen. Trunk ± stout, up to c. 25 cm diameter, sometimes with aerial ‘breathing’ roots (not reaching the ground) on the lower portion; bark smooth and somewhat powdery, whitish or yellow-green; branchlets decussate, slender, subterete or quadrangular, with a densely pulverulent (powdery)-puberulent whitish or greyish thin outer bark, nodes swollen
    Leaves
    Leaves 3.5–12 × 1.3–5 cm, ovate or lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, acute or subacute at the apex, entire with margins slightly revolute, cuneate at the base or ± tapering into the petiole, glabrous or ± obscurely powdery on upper surface, densely pulverulent (powdery)-puberulent or felted-tomentellous on lower surface, coriaceous, usually light green on both surfaces or discolorous and silvery-greyish or greenish-yellow beneath, becoming dark olive-green to blackish above and sordid grey to yellowish beneath on drying; midrib slender and ± prominent on both surfaces, reticulation slightly raised above and obscured beneath; secondary nerves 8–15 on each side of midrib; petiole 3–14 mm long, flattened above, densely powdery-puberulent or tomentellous, rarely glabrescent. Leaves 3.5–12 × 1.3–5 cm, ovate or lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, acute or subacute at the apex, entire with margins slightly revolute, cuneate at the base or ± tapering into the petiole, glabrous or ± obscurely powdery on upper surface, densely pulverulent (powdery)-puberulent or felted-tomentellous on lower surface, coriaceous, usually light green on both surfaces or discolorous and silvery-greyish or greenish-yellow beneath, becoming dark olive-green to blackish above and sordid grey to yellowish beneath on drying; midrib slender and ± prominent on both surfaces, reticulation slightly raised above and obscured beneath; secondary nerves 8–15 on each side of midrib; petiole 3–14 mm long, flattened above, densely powdery-puberulent or tomentellous, rarely glabrescent
    Inflorescences
    Cymes usually solitary in leaf axils towards the end of the branchlets, and usually with 3 at the apex of the branchlets, few- to many-flowered, capitate or subcapitate; the heads 7–15 mm in diameter; peduncles 0.6–4 cm long, quadrangular, sulcate when dry, densely thinly powdery-puberulent. Cymes usually solitary leaf axils towards the end of the branchlets, and usually with 3 at the apex of the branchlets, few- to many-flowered, capitate or subcapitate; the heads 7–15 mm diameter; peduncles 0.6–4 cm long, quadrangular, sulcate when dry, densely thinly powdery-puberulent

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cape Provinces, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Victoria, Vietnam, Western Australia, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    California

    Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7593], Tanzania 24495.000
    Renvoize, S.A. [762], Seychelles 7386.000
    Curtis, C. [3533], Malaysia K000885462
    Curtis, C. [3533], Malaysia K000885463
    s.coll. [6070], Peninsular Malaysia K000885464
    Bhide, R.K. [s.n.], India K000885470

    First published in Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 71: 435 (1907)

    Accepted by

    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Debnath, H.S. (2004). Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar islands: taxonomy and ecology: 1-133. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Miller, A.G. & M. Morris in Miller, A.G. & M. Morris (2004). Ethnofl. Soqotra Archipel. Convolvulaceae + Cuscutaceae Ethnoflora of the Soqotra Archipelago: 516-524. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 975 (2002).  TAB. 1 .
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 144, fig. 21 (1992).
    • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa, ed. 2: 816 (1988).
    • Econ. Bot. 27 , 2: 189 (1973).
    • Palmer & Pitman, Trees Southern Africa 3 : 1971, photo facing p. 1956, photo p. 1972 & 1974, fig. p. 1975 (1973).
    • J.H. Ross, Fl. Natal: 300 (1972).
    • Gomes e Sousa, Dendrol. Moçamb.: 660, t. 214 (1967).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees & Shrubs: 581, fig. 106 (1961).
    • Phytologia 7 , 4: 210 (1960).
    • Macnae & Kalk, Nat. Hist. Inhaca Isl., Moçamb.: 13, fig. 5d, plate III(6) (1958).
    • Fl. Madag., Avicenniaceae: 2, fig. 1 (1956)
    • F.W. Andrews, Fl. Pl. Anglo-Egypt. Sudan 3 : 193 (1956).
    • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb., II] 12 : 177 (1954).
    • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 629 (1949).
    • F.C. 5 , 1: 225–226 (1910).
    • sensu Sim, For. Fl. Port. E. Africa: 94, 125 et 139, t. 83 (1909), non L. (1753).
    • F.T.A. 5 : 332 (1900).
    • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C : 342 (1895).
    • Peters, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 6 , part 1: 266 (1861).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Debnath, H.S. (2004). Mangroves of Andaman & Nicobar islands: taxonomy and ecology: 1-133. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Collenette, Fl. Saudi Arabia: 494 (1985).
    • Moldenke in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 127 (1983) (very full synonymy and description etc.).
    • Fosberg & Renvoize, Fl. Aldabra: 219, fig. 35/1 (1980).
    • Ju-Ying Hsiao in Fl. Taiwan 4: 411, t. 1055 (1978).
    • Jafri, Fl. W. Pakistan 49, Avicenniac.: 2, fig. 1 (1973).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 803 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 581, fig. 106 (1961).
    • Täckholm, Students’ Fl. Egypt: 155 (1956).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 629 (1949).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 137 (1949).
    • Lam & Bakh. in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., sér. 3, 3: 102 (1921), pro parte.
    • Vierh. in Denkschr. Akad. Wiss., Wien, Math.-Nat. 71: 435 (1907).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0