1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Tectona L.f.
      1. Tectona grandis L.f.

        Tectona grandis (teak) is a tall tree from southeast Asia and is widely cultivated for its durable wood. It is a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), which is perhaps better known for its aromatic members including culinary herbs such as basil, oregano and rosemary.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from India.
    General
    A large tree up to 50 m tall, densely cineraceous- or ochraceous-furfuraceous-tomentose
    Leaves
    Leaves 11–95 × 6–50 cm, broadly elliptic, acute or shortly acuminate at the apex, acute or attenuate and prolonged into the winged petiole at the base or sessile and clasping, entire or repand denticulate at the margin, chartaceous, dark green, very rough or minutely bullate above, light yellow-green and densely stellate-tomentose beneath (often with a red coloration on rubbing), glabrescent, drooping; petiole short, stout, winged, densely ochraceous-furfuraceous, or absent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal and in the axils of the uppermost leaves, massive, usually c. 40 × 40 cm, the terminal ones often larger, densely cineraceous- or ochraceous-furfuraceous; cymes opposite, divaricate, distant, branched, many-flowered; peduncles often elongate; pedicels 1–4 mm long; bracts up to 15 × 4 mm, linear-lanceolate, attenuate
    Calyx
    Calyx 4–4.5 × 3–3.5 mm, 5–7-dentate or-lobed, with teeth 1.5–2.5 mm long and ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse, often reflexed, yellow-green, densely furfuraceous-tomentellous
    Corolla
    Corolla white or with the lobes rose-coloured; tube 1.5–3 mm long and c. 1.5 mm wide; limb 5–7-partite, the segments 2.5–3 mm, obovate-elliptic, rounded at the top, erect or reflexed
    Filaments
    Filaments 2.5–4 mm long, ampliate and flattened below, glabrous; anthers ovate or oblong
    Ovary
    Ovary 1.2–2 mm long, ovate or conical, pubescent; style 3.6–5.2 mm long, pubescent
    Fruits
    Fruit 1.2–2 cm in diameter, subglobose or tetragonal, umbilicate and 4-lobed at the top, densely tomentose with hairs irregularly branched, light brown or ochraceous, enclosed in the inflated calyx; fruiting calyx  up to 2.5 cm in diameter, bladder-like, light brown and brittle on drying, irregularly plaited and crumpled.
    Ecology
    In Mozambique it is cultivated on sandy, reddish soil.
    Note
    Information on teak has been summarized by Krishna Murthy (Bibliography on teak, Dehra Dun, 1981). In FHO there is a sheet with three seedlings, obtained from seeds sown 29.iii.1958, at a nursery in Samfya (Zambia, N:).  However, F. White does not refer to this species as being cultivated in Zambia in the Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia.
    Distribution
    Mozambique Native to India, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Java, it is cultivated in many tropical countries of Asia and Africa for its valuable wood District code: MOZ MS, MOZ M.
    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    It is a large tree at maturity, up to 50 m..
    Leaves
    Large elliptic leaves 10–100 cm. long, 5–50 cm. wide, mostly about 30 × 25 cm., stellate-tomentose beneath and often with red coloration on rubbing.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences massive, ± 40 cm. long, 35 cm. wide with stellate-tomentose axes and small white flowers, the corolla-tube ± 1.5–3 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit subglobose, ± 1.5 cm. long and wide, enclosed in the inflated bladdery calyx 2.5 cm. long and wide.
    Note
    Information on teak has been summarised by Krishna Murthy (Bibliography on teak, Dehra Dun, 1981) and Moldenke gives much information (Phytologia 1:154–164 (1935) & 5:112–120 (1954)).
    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    Tectona grandis (teak) is a tall tree from southeast Asia and is widely cultivated for its durable wood, but has also been used for traditional medicine in southeast Asia. It is a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), which is perhaps better known for its aromatic members including culinary herbs such as basil, oregano and rosemary.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Tectona grandis has a natural distribution from India to Vietnam and Thailand. It is also found in cultivation throughout the tropics.

    Description

    Teak trees can grow up to 40 m high. The bark is scaly and the leaves are opposite one another. The leaves are 6 - 75 cm long, 8 - 45 cm wide, and hairless on the upper surface when mature, with many star-shaped hairs below.

    The calyxes form a balloon-like shape enveloping the fruit. The corolla is regular, and white to cream-coloured. The fruit is pale yellow, of 1.2 to 2 cm diameter, and covered with star-shaped hairs.

    Threats and conservation

    Although the species itself is common, the unique teak forests of India, Burma and Thailand are under threat from over-exploitation.

    Uses

    Tectona grandis is the source of a high quality general purpose hardwood known as teak. The timber is used for ship decking, flooring, furniture and construction. It is particularly recommended for construction in seaside environments (such as bridges and docks) because it is resistant to shipworm, a wood-boring sea mollusc ( Teredo spp., Teredinidae). Quinones in the sawdust inhibit the growth of several species of the fungi that cause wood rot.

    Leaves of Tectona grandis Teak is widely cultivated in the tropics; the main producers are Burma, India, Thailand and Indonesia. Like all forests, plantations of teak can act as carbon stores; in Panama, for example, teak plantations sequester carbon dioxide at a rate of 191.1 mg per hectare during a twenty-year rotation. Soil analyses in Costa Rica indicate that teak plantations may improve the soil quality of lands previously under pasture. In Tanzania, wildlife forage is provided by young teak plantations where grass and herbs grow in the understorey.

    Teak has traditionally been used in southeast Asia for medicine, commonly for its astringent and diuretic properties and against swelling. Its traditional use for diabetes has been supported by laboratory tests in which extracts of the bark have been shown to lower insulin resistance in mice. The wood has also been said to relieve skin irritations caused by handling cashew nuts ( Anacardium occidentale , Anacardiaceae) and marking nuts ( Semecarpus anacardium , Anacardiaceae).

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:  One

    Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox - the seeds of this plant survive being dried without significantly reducing their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB

    Composition values: Oil content 34%

    Cultivation

    Tectona grandis grows best in a warm, tropical climate with a temperature above 22 ºC. Teak prefers well-drained, fertile soils and is a strong light demander.

    Trees are 96 to 100% self-incompatible. The species is hermaphroditic and pollinated by insects, especially bees. Propagation by seed involves pre-treatment to break the dormancy, involving wetting and drying the seed every 12 hours, over a period of two weeks. When seeds are sown in a mix of sand and coir, at 22 to 25ºC, germination will take place within two to four weeks. The germination rate is low, and teak seedlings need shading.

    Vegetative propagation can be achieved by grafting and budding. Tissue cultures have also been developed for the propagation of teak.

    Distribution
    India, Thailand, Vietnam
    Ecology
    This species naturally occurs in deciduous forests, but is planted commonly along roadsides and in large plantations throughout the tropics.
    Conservation
    IUCN status of Least Concern (LC).
    Hazards

    None known.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Building material, medicinal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Belize, Benin, Cabinda, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Gambia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Honduras, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Panamá, Philippines, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

    Common Names

    English
    Teak

    Tectona grandis L.f. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1939 Netherlands Indies Forestry Service [bb25521], Indonesia K000932050
    Jan 1, 1939 Netherlands Indies Forestry Service [bb25521], Indonesia K000932051
    May 13, 1923 Bünnemeijer, H.A.B. [10702], Indonesia K000932038
    Jan 1, 1923 Thomson, G. [46a], India K000249764
    Jan 1, 1923 Thomson, G. [46a], India K000249765
    Keith, H.G. [A1530], Malaysia K000932031
    Keith, H.G. [A1530], Malaysia K000932032
    Styles, B.T. [61], Uganda 25694.023
    Kochummen, K.M. [26233], Malaysia K000897973
    Kochummen, K.M. [26233], Malaysia K000897974
    Chantaranothai, P. [90/659], Thailand K000897986
    Koorders, S.H. [29623], Indonesia K000932040
    Koorders, S.H. [29917], Indonesia K000932044
    Robinson, C.B. [298], Indonesia K000932036
    Robinson, C.B. [298bis], Indonesia K000932037
    Kostermans, A. [737], Thailand K000897984
    Kostermans, A. [737], Thailand K000897985
    Horsfield, T. [s.n.], Indonesia K000932042
    Hutchinson, W.I. [3959], Philippines K000932058
    Hutchinson, W.I. [3959], Philippines K000932059
    Hutchinson, W.I. [3959], Philippines K000932060
    Cuadra, A. [A2471], Malaysia K000932049
    Cuadra, A. [A272], Malaysia K000932052
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 772], Myanmar K001111872
    Thorel, M. le [1979], Vietnam K000897976
    Thorel, M. le [1279], Vietnam K000897977
    Thorel, M. le [1279], Vietnam K000897978
    Thorel, M. le [1279], Vietnam K000897981
    Voogd, C.N.A. de [s.n.], Indonesia K000932043
    Gibot, A. [40932], Malaysia K000932053
    Miranda, D.P. [18947], Philippines K000932057
    Rahman [6751], Malaysia K000932054
    Rahman [6751], Malaysia K000932055
    Williams, R.S. [3123], Philippines K000932056
    Kerr, A.F.G. [1297], Thailand K000897982
    Merrill, E.D. [837], Philippines K000932063
    Esser, H.J. [0471], Thailand K000897983
    Hooker f. [83], Pakistan K000249763
    Barbon [1894], Philippines K000932065
    Romero, E.M. [29078], Philippines K000932061
    Romero, E.M. [29078], Philippines K000932062
    Ambri [900], Indonesia K000932034
    Ambri [900], Indonesia K000932035
    s.coll. [s.n.], Indonesia K000932039
    Herb. Blume [s.n.], Indonesia K000932041
    Marsemi [1], Indonesia K000932033
    Aziz [51907], Malaysia K000897975
    Meynant [s.n.], Vietnam K000897979
    Pabbé Bon, M. [6094], Vietnam K000897980
    Jugah ak. Tagi [39941], Malaysia K000932045
    Jugah ak. Tagi [39941], Malaysia K000932046
    Abu Bakar, F.R. [A277], Malaysia K000932047
    Abu Bakar, F.R. [A277], Malaysia K000932048
    Pray, F.L. [15407], Philippines K000932064
    Pray, F.L. [15407], Philippines K000932066
    Miras [24457], Philippines K000932067
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 772] K001111868
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 772] K001111869
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 772] K001111870
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 772] K001111871

    First published in Suppl. Pl.: 151 (1782)

    Accepted by

    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K., Rodríguez Delcid, D. & Olmedo Galán, P. (2016). Nova Silva Cuscatlantica. Parte 3: Angiospermae - Familias R a Z y Gymnospermae Englera 29(3): 1-356.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • Boley J.D., Drew A.P., Andrus R.E. (2009). Effects of active pasture, teak ( Tectona grandis) and mixed native plantations on soil chemistry in Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management. 257: 2254-2261.
    • Bonnington C., Weaver D., Fanning E. (2009). The use of teak ( Tectona grandis) plantations by large mammals in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology. 47: 138-145.
    • Derwisch S., Schwedenmann L., Olschewski R., Holscher D. (2009). Estimation and economic evaluation of aboveground carbon storage of Tectona grandis in Western Panama. New Forests. 37: 227-240.
    • Ghaisas M., Navghare V., Takawale A., Zope V., Tanwar M., Deshpande A. (2009). Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. on dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 122: 304-307.
    • Sumthong P., Romero-Gonzalez R.R., Verpoorte R. (2008). Identification of anti-wood rot compounds in teak ( Tectona grandis L.f.) sawdust extract. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology. 28: 247-260.
    • Warrier P.K. (1996). Indian Medicinal Plants: a Compendium of 500 Species. Orient Longman, Hyderabad.

    • Soerianegara I, Lemmens RHMJ (1993). Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1). Timber trees: Major commercial timbers. Pudoc, Wageningen.
    • Nadkarni A.K. (1976). Indian Materia Medica. Volume 1. 3rd edn. Popular Prakashan, Bombay.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 2 (1992).
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 304 (1983).
    • Phytologia 5 : 112–120 (1954).
    • Gossweiler, Fl. Exot. Angola: 182 (1950).
    • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 641 (1949).
    • Phytologia 1 : 154-165 (1935).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 641 (1949).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 463 (1949).
    • Dale, Descr. List. Introd. Trees Uganda: 67 (1937)),.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0