1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Verbena L.
      1. Verbena rigida Spreng.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Bolivia to Uruguay.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from Uruguay.
    General
    Perennial mat-forming herb from a creeping rhizome, with aerial stems 15–60 cm tall
    Stem
    Stems simple or little-branched, ascending-erect, decumbent or creeping at the base, c. 3 mm in diameter at the base, sharply 4-angled, scabrous-pubescent to hispid with short bristle-hairs intermixed with glandular-headed hairs, sulcate; internodes usually shorter than the leaves, sometimes elongate
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile, 3–12 × 1–2.5(4) cm, oblong, narrowly obovate, or oblong-lanceolate, acute at the apex, ± cuneate in the lower leaves and subcordate to amplexicaul in upper leaves, unequally and coarsely incised-serrate with rather distant teeth, ± stiff, scabrous, ± hispidulous on both surfaces or callose-strigose above and shortly hispid on the nerves beneath, pale green; midrib and lateral nerves impressed above, prominent beneath
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of solitary terminal spikes or 3–5 spikes in dichotomous cymes; spikes 0.5–2.5 cm long, up to 5 cm long in fruit, cylindrical, dense, elongating in fruit; peduncles up to 6 cm long; bracts ± closely imbricate until fruiting, 2–3-times as long as the calyx, lanceolate to long attenuate-subulate, acute at the apex, mostly glandular-pubescent, ciliate on the margins, purple toward the apex; flowers showy
    Calyx
    Calyx hidden by a subtending bract (3.5)4–6 mm long, cylindric at flowering time, widening below in fruit, glandular hairy, red or green
    Corolla
    Corolla tube 8–10 mm long, 2–4 times as long as the calyx, exceeding the calyx teeth by 5–8 mm, slender, cylindric, curved, pubescent outside and inside in upper part, purple to violet, blue-violet or mauve in the exposed portion, white in the lower part; limb 7–10 mm in diameter, slightly hairy at the mouth, with the lobes broad, emarginate or bilobed, the median one longer
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted near middle of the tube
    Style
    Style about half as long as the corolla tube
    Fruits
    Mericarps c. 2 mm long, raised-reticulate in the upper part, with 5 slender costae towards the base, minutely densely whitish tuberculate at the commissural face.
    Ecology
    A garden escape, now naturalized, grassland on rocky dry slope in doleritic soil; c. 1600 m.
    Distribution
    Zimbabwe Native to South America, from central Brazil to northern Argentina; introduced in the West Indies and southern United States of America, and in Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa (Transvaal, KwaZulu-Natal, Cape Provinces) Swaziland and Madagascar. District code: ZIM C.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Paraguay, Uruguay

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Arkansas, Azores, Bermuda, California, Cape Provinces, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Hawaii, India, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Mississippi, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Oklahoma, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, South Australia, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Victoria, Virginia, Western Australia, Zimbabwe

    Verbena rigida Spreng. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hassler, E. [8911], Paraguay Verbena rigida f. obovata K000899621 isotype
    Sep 20, 2000 Gillies, J. [s.n.], Buenos Aires Verbena venosa K000470496 holotype
    Melliss, J.C. [s.n.], St.Helena Verbena scaberrima K000470515
    Verbena scaberrima K000470514
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil Verbena scaberrima K000470513

    First published in Syst. Veg. 4(2): 230 (1827)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 12: 1-650. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 8 (1992).
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 203 (1983).
    • Fl. Europaea 3 : 123 (1972).
    • Adams, Fl. Pl. Jamaica: 628 (1972).
    • J.H. Ross, Fl. Natal: 299 (1972).
    • Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink Jr., Fl. Java 2 : 596 (1965).
    • Leon & Alain, Fl. Cuba 4 : 282, fig. 121B (1965).
    • Phytologia 11 : 62, 80 (1964).
    • Cabrera, Man. Fl. Alreded. Buenos Aires: 395 (1953).
    • Annuaire Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 7 – 8 : 291 (1904).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0