1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Vitex L.
      1. Vitex buchananii Baker ex Gürke

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Shrub 2–4.5 m. or branched tree 3–15 m. tall or even described as a herb to 1.2 m.; bark smooth, yellow-green; young shoots often square, with dense pubescence of short curled and adpressed and rather longer spreading hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves aromatic, 3–5-foliolate; leaflets ovate to elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 3.5–18 cm. long, 2–9 cm. wide, acuminate at the apex, rounded to cuneate at the base, entire or toothed, ± discolorous, subscabrid above with short hairs or glabrescent but with small yellow glands, sparsely to densely pubescent to subtomentose beneath particularly on the venation and densely dotted with small yellow glands; petiole 4–12.5 cm. long; petiolules 0–2.5 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences much branched, paniculate, 10–30 cm. long, densely pubescent with short and long hairs and glandular; bracts linear, 2–3 mm. long; pedicels 0–1.5 mm. long, enlarging to 2–3 mm. in fruit.
    Calyx
    Calyx 2 mm. long, ribbed, denticulate or shallowly toothed, densely pubescent.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or greenish yellow; tube 3–4.5 mm. long, the upper part glandular and tomentose outside; upper lip bilobed with lobes 1–1.5 mm. long, lower lip 3-lobed, 2.5 mm. long.
    Style
    Style 2–5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit very characteristic, globose, 5–7 mm. diameter, so densely glandular as to appear yellow or yellow-brown but white under the coating; calycine cup 7–9 mm. wide, pubescent and gland-dotted.
    Habitat
    Thicket, secondary bushland, deciduous woodland of Ricinodendron, etc., also Brachystegia, Uapaca woodland, grassland and derived plantations; 360–1500 m.
    Distribution
    T3 T6 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from Tanzania.
    Habit
    Shrub 2–4.5 m tall, sometimes scandent or frequently a strong liane, occasionally a small tree to 6 m tall; bark fissured, dark grey-brown; older stems grey-brown tomentose; young stems conspicuously 4-angled, pale yellow tomentose Shrub 2–4.5 m tall, sometimes scandent or frequently a strong liane, occasionally a small tree to 6 m tall; bark fissured, dark grey-brown; older stems grey-brown tomentose; young stems conspicuously 4-angled, pale yellow tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaves aromatic when crushed, (3)5-foliolate; petioles 4–14 cm long, terete; median petiolules 1–2.5 cm long; leaflets 5–16 × 2.5–7 cm, median leaflet largest, oblong-elliptic to obovate, long-acuminate at the apex, ± asymmetric and cuneate at the base, entire to occasionally serrate, ± discolorous, scabrid above with short hairs or glabrescent, sparsely to densely pubescent to subtomentose beneath and densely yellow gland-dotted, nerves ± sunken above and prominent beneath Leaves aromatic when crushed, (3)5-foliolate; petioles 4–14 cm long, terete; median petiolules 1–2.5 cm long; leaflets 5–16 × 2.5–7 cm, median leaflet largest, oblong-elliptic to obovate, long-acuminate at the apex, ± asymmetric and cuneate at the base, entire to occasionally serrate, ± discolorous, scabrid above with short hairs or glabrescent, sparsely to densely pubescent to subtomentose beneath and densely yellow gland-dotted, nerves ± sunken above and prominent beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, paniculate, (4)9–35 cm long, white-tomentose; bracteoles 1–5 mm long, linear Inflorescence terminal, paniculate, (4)9–35 cm long, white-tomentose; bracteoles 1–5 mm long, linear.
    Calyx
    Calyx obconical, shallowly 5-toothed, gland-dotted, pubescent sometimes lanate, strongly accrescent in fruit; tube 1.5–2 mm long; lobes 0.4–0.8 mm long, erect Calyx obconical, shallowly 5-toothed, gland-dotted, pubescent sometimes lanate, strongly accrescent in fruit; tube 1.5–2 mm long; lobes 0.4–0.8 mm long, erect.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or mauve; tube 4–5 mm long, straight, glandular and pubescent outside; upper lip 2-lobed with lobes at an obtuse angle to tube; lower lip 3-lobed, 0.7–2 × 1.4–1.8 mm Corolla white or mauve; tube 4–5 mm long, straight, glandular and pubescent outside; upper lip 2-lobed with lobes at an obtuse angle to tube; lower lip 3-lobed, 0.7–2 × 1.4–1.8 mm.
    Stamens
    Stamens scarcely exserted from tube; filaments glabrous Stamens scarcely exserted from tube; filaments glabrous.
    Ovary
    Ovary obovoid, gland-dotted at apex, glabrous; apex almost truncate; style 0.4–0.5 mm long
    Ecology
    Forest margins in grassland with Cussonia , in riverine vegetation, wooded grassland and mixed deciduous woodlands with Bauhinia , Brachystegia and Combretum ; 10–1800 m.
    Note
    Readily identified by the small spherical fruits covered with a characteristic bright orange-yellow papery glandular coat, but white beneath it.  The scabrid adaxial surface of the leaflets and the abundant yellow oil-dots, especially abaxially, are also characteristic and apparent even on seedlings.  Yellow oil-dots are also present on calyx and corolla.
    Distribution
    District code: MOZ N, ZIM E, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ MS. Mozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Zambia Also in Tanzania and Dem. Rep. Congo.
    Pistil
    Ovary obovoid, gland-dotted at apex, glabrous; apex almost truncate; style 0.4–0.5 mm long.
    Fruits
    Fruit a globose drupe, c. 6–8 mm in diameter, enveloped in a distinctive bright orange-yellow papery flaking layer of glands, the fruit whitish beneath, the lower c. 1/3 enclosed by the enlarged calyx; fruiting calyx cup-shaped, pubescent, gland-dotted. Fruit a globose drupe, c. 6–8 mm in diameter, enveloped in a distinctive bright orange-yellow papery flaking layer of glands, the fruit whitish beneath, the lower c. 1/3 enclosed by the enlarged calyx; fruiting calyx cup-shaped, pubescent, gland-dotted.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Vitex buchananii Baker ex Gürke appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 30, 1987 Stolz, A. [1398], Kenya K000192771 isosyntype
    Jun 30, 1987 Volkens, G. [132], Tanzania K000192770
    Jun 30, 1987 Goetze, W. [157], Malawi K000414476 isotype
    Milne-Redhead, E. [8644], Tanzania 31127.000
    Patel, H. [s.n.], Mozambique K000614359

    First published in H.G.A.Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 339 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 981 (2002).
    • Kew Bull. 56 : 191 (2001).
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 54, 55 (1992).
    • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 807 (1977).
    • Kirkia 10 : 272 (1975).
    • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 371 (1962).
    • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb. II]: 170 (1954).
    • J. S. African Bot. 18 : 76 (1952).
    • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 642 (1949).
    • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 643 (1949).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 53 (1928).
    • F.T.A. 5 : 319 (1900).
    • Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1895 : 152 (1895).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 83 (1980).
    • Coates Palgrave, Trees S. Afr.: 807 (1977).
    • Haerdi in Acta Trop., Suppl. 8: 153 (1964).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 371 (1962).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 642 (1949).
    • Pieper in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 62, Beibl. 141: 54 (1928).
    • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 5: 319 (1900).
    • Gürke in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 339 (1895).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0