1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Vitex L.
      1. Vitex doniana Sweet

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, W. Indian Ocean.

    [FWTA]

    Verbenaceae, H. Huber, F. N. Hepper & R. D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Tree 30-60 ft. high, with glabrous branches
    Leaves
    5-foliolate, coriaceous leaves
    Ecology
    Savanna woodland and open country.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from Sierra Leone. Type from Angola.
    General
    Deciduous much branched tree 4–18 m tall; bark with vertical fissures and stringy ridges or smooth, pale grey-brown, sometimes reddish-brown; older branches brownish-red, yellow and grey; young branches shortly tomentose or glabrescent, with reddish-brown buds
    Leaves
    Leaves (3)4–5(6)-foliolate; petiole 5–17 cm long, grooved; median petiolules 0.4–2 cm long; leaflets 7–23 × 3–9 cm, median leaflet largest, broadly-obovate or sometimes narrowly obovate, rounded or emarginate to cuspidate and shortly acuminate at the apex, ± asymmetric and cuneate at the base, coriaceous, entire, concolorous shiny and glabrous above, not gland-dotted, midrib sometimes puberulous beneath, nerves raised beneath Leaves (3)4–5(6)-foliolate; petiole 5–17 cm long, grooved; median petiolules 0.4–2 cm long; leaflets 7–23 × 3–9 cm, median leaflet largest, broadly-obovate or sometimes narrowly obovate, rounded or emarginate to cuspidate and shortly acuminate at the apex, ± asymmetric and cuneate at the base, coriaceous, entire, concolorous shiny and glabrous above, not gland-dotted, midrib sometimes puberulous beneath, nerves raised beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, of sturdy ± densely-flowered compound dichasia, 2.5–10 cm long, orange-tawny tomentose; bracteoles 0.2–0.3 cm long, linear, caducous Inflorescences axillary, of sturdy ± densely-flowered compound dichasia, 2.5–10 cm long, orange-tawny tomentose; bracteoles 0.2–0.3 cm long, linear, caducous.
    Calyx
    Calyx conical, shallowly 5-toothed, rusty-brown lanate, not gland-dotted, accrescent in fruit; tube 2.5–4 mm long; teeth c. 0.5–1.5 mm long, erect Calyx conical, shallowly 5-toothed, rusty-brown lanate, not gland-dotted, accrescent in fruit; tube 2.5–4 mm long; teeth c. 0.5–1.5 mm long, erect.
    Corolla
    Corolla 8–12 mm long, not gland-dotted, densely brown velvety tomentose outside; tube white or violet, 6–8 mm long, curved; lobes mauve, at obtuse angle to tube, middle lower lobe c. 3 × 4 mm Corolla 8–12 mm long, not gland-dotted, densely brown velvety tomentose outside; tube white or violet, 6–8 mm long, curved; lobes mauve, at obtuse angle to tube, middle lower lobe c. 3 × 4 mm.
    Ovary
    Ovary obovoid and almost truncate apically, not gland-dotted, crowned with erect rigid hairs; style c. 7 mm long
    Ecology
    Evergreen forest margins, swamp forest margins and riverine forest, in open   Brachystegia–Isoberlinia woodland in high rainfall areas and in coastal forest, often on termite mounds; 5–1750 m.
    Note
    The type of V. puberula probably belongs here, although the whole plant is covered in a greyish bloom and leaflet lower surface is pubescent on the blade as well as on the veins. Usually distinctive in its large (up to 23 cm long) glabrous smooth leathery leaves, pale-coloured on drying.  Some atypical specimens approach V. madiensis subsp. milanjiensis in their general facies (see discussion under V. madiensis ).
    Distribution
    Mozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Zambia District code: MAL N, MAL W, MAL C, MAL E, ZIM E, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M. Widespread throughout tropical Africa from Senegal to Cameroons, and in east Africa and Angola; also in Comores.
    Habit
    Deciduous much branched tree 4–18 m tall; bark with vertical fissures and stringy ridges or smooth, pale grey-brown, sometimes reddish-brown; older branches brownish-red, yellow and grey; young branches shortly tomentose or glabrescent, with reddish-brown buds.
    Stamens
    Stamens scarcely exserted from corolla tube; filaments with glandular hairs. Stamens scarcely exserted from corolla tube; filaments with glandular hairs
    Pistil
    Ovary obovoid and almost truncate apically, not gland-dotted, crowned with erect rigid hairs; style c. 7 mm long.
    Fruits
    Fruit a shiny edible drupe, 2–2.7 × 1.5–2.5 cm, obovoid-ellipsoid, rounded at the apex, the lower half not enclosed in the enlarged calyx, purplish-black at maturity; fruiting calyx saucer-shaped, pubescent, not gland-dotted. Fruit a shiny edible drupe, 2–2.7 × 1.5–2.5 cm, obovoid-ellipsoid, rounded at the apex, the lower half not enclosed in the enlarged calyx, purplish-black at maturity; fruiting calyx saucer-shaped, pubescent, not gland-dotted.
    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Deciduous much-branched tree 4.5–12(–24) m. tall, with dark green rounded crown; bole up to 7.2 m. long and 2.6 m. girth; bark pale brown to greyish white with long narrow vertical fissures and stringy ridges or occasionally smooth; slash yellowish white darkening brown; young branchlets glabrous or puberulous to velvety tomentose.
    Leaves
    Leaves 5(–7)-foliolate; leaflets obovate, obovate-oblong to -elliptic or nearly obtriangular, 4–24.5 cm. long, 2.5–10.5 cm. wide, rather glaucous beneath, rounded, emarginate, very slightly apiculate or cuspidate at the apex, cuneate at the base, coriaceous, entire, glabrous or midrib puberulous beneath; petiole 5–20 cm. long; petiolules 0.3–2.5 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes axillary, much branched, dense to fairly lax, ± 20-flowered, 2.5–7 cm. long, 3–16 cm. wide, velvety brown pubescent; peduncles 2–7.5 cm. long; pedicels 0–2 mm. long; bracts linear, to 6 mm. long; bracteoles narrowly triangular, 2 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx 3–5 mm. long, shallowly toothed, rusty brown hairy, accrescent.
    Corolla
    Corolla white to rose with lower lip violet or purple or all mauve, at least sometimes with yellow honey guide, densely brown velvety tomentose outside; limb with 4 ovate lobes 3 mm. long and one larger, obovate and crinkly, 4.5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit black, oblong-ellipsoid, (1.8–)3 cm. long, 1.5–2 cm. wide, glabrous, sitting in a shallow cup 1–1.5 cm. wide.
    Habitat
    Essentially a savanna species, Combretum woodland, elephant grassland but extends into forest; mostly in rather wet areas;0–1950 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 widespread throughout tropical Africa from Senegal to Cameroon, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Angola, extending to the Comoro Is., also cultivated at Nairobi and various other forest stations

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cuba, Seychelles

    Vitex doniana Sweet appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 3, 2014 Welwitsch, F.M.J. [5668], Angola K001067049 Unknown type material
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13518], Cameroon K000580257
    Nov 1, 2008 Nana felicite [143], Cameroon K000580258
    Oct 1, 2007 Etuge, M. [5374], Cameroon K000746141
    Jan 1, 2004 Pollard, B.J. [592], Cameroon K000213077
    Oct 1, 1999 Cameron, L.T. [s.n.], East Tropical Africa K001044804
    Jul 22, 1987 Kirk [1], Tanzania K000241362 syntype
    Jul 22, 1987 Hildebrandt, J.M. [1123] K000241363 syntype
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10482], Tanzania 28484.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [11080], Tanzania 29442.000
    Jaeger, P. [17], Mali K000386005
    Jaeger, P. [17], Mali K000386006
    Chevalier, A. [2769], Mali K000386007
    Gossweiler, J. [14108], Angola K000508698
    Scott Elliot, G.F. [5211], Guinea K000386008
    Scott Elliot, G.F. [5211], Guinea K000386009
    Robson, N. [1109], Zambia 29119.000
    Styles, B.T. [283], Uganda 7366.000
    Welwitsch [5695], Angola K001008435
    Welwitsch [5645], Angola K001008436
    Welwitsch [5746], Angola K001008437
    Welwitsch [5633], Angola K001008438
    Wellman, F.C. [s.n.], Angola K001008434
    Madsen, J.E. [6620], Burkina Faso K000386001
    Timberlake, J. [4943], Mozambique K000545293
    Davey, J.T. [500], Mali K000386010
    unknown [547], Seychelles Vitex hornei K000192791
    Mann, G. [994] Vitex pachyphylla K000241365 Unknown type material
    Mann, G. [994] Vitex pachyphylla K000241364 Unknown type material
    Mozambique Vitex cuneata 17182.000
    Brenan, J.P.M. [8956], Nigeria Vitex cuneata 18110.000
    Mbenkum, T. [TFM 386], Cameroon Vitex cuneata K000029523

    First published in Hort. Brit.: 323 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • Meerts, P. (2018). Synopsis of the genus Vites (Lamiaceae) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Plant Ecology and Evolution 151: 380-392.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Pieper in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 62, Beibl. 141 (as "142"): 64 (1928)
    • F.T.A. 5: 323
    • Moldenke in Phytologia 5: 322, not of Hiern (1900).
    • Hort. Brit., ed. 1: 323 (1827)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 981 (2002).
    • Kew Bull. 56 : 192 (2001).
    • White, Dowsett-Lemaire & Chapman, Evergr. For. Fl. Malawi: 588 (2001).
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 62 (1992).
    • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 808 (1977).
    • Kirkia 10 : 271 (1975).
    • Gomes e Sousa, Dendrol. Moçambique Estudo Geral 2 : 659 (1967).
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2 : 446, fig. 308 (1963).
    • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 371 (1962).
    • Topham, Check List For. Trees Shrubs Nyasaland Prot.: 102 (1958).
    • Phytologia 5 : 322 (1955).
    • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb. II]: 175 (1954).
    • Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9 : 38 (1954).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 56 (1928).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 64 (1928).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 71 (1928).
    • Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Africa 5 : 459 (1916).
    • Sim, For. Fl. Port. E. Africa: 94 (1909).
    • F.T.A. 5 : 323 (1900).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 291, fig. 94.4 (1985).
    • Von Maydell, Arbres et Arbustes du Sahel: 375, 374 & 504–505 (plates) (1983).
    • Geerling, Guide de Terrain Lign. Sahél. Soud.-Guin.: 328, t. 92/3 (1982).
    • Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 83 (1980).
    • Coates Palgrave, Trees S. Afr.: 808 (1977).
    • Huber in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 446, fig. 308 (1963).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 371 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 593, fig. 108 (1961).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 200, fig. 52 (1956).
    • Moldenke in Phytologia 5: 322 (1955) (very extensive bibliography and information).
    • Brenan in Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 9: 38 (1954).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 443, fig. 93 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 642 (1949).
    • Pieper in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 62, Beibl. 141: 64 (1928).
    • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 5: 323 (1900).
    • Sweet, Hort. Brit.: 323 (1827).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0