1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Vitex L.
      1. Vitex ferruginea Schumach. & Thonn.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from Ghana.
    General
    Many stemmed shrub 1.5–4.5 m tall often scandent, or small tree to 6(15) m tall, sometimes a liane, often deciduous; bark fissured, grey to light brown; older stems brownish-yellow, red and grey; young stems orange lanate
    Leaves
    Leaves (3)5(7)-foliolate; petioles 2.5–12 cm long, terete; median petiolules (0.2)1.0–2.0(3.5) cm long; leaflets 2.5–11 × 1.5–4 cm, median leaflet largest, narrow to broadly lanceolate, acute to narrowly acuminate or sometimes short acuminate or rounded at the apex, cuneate or rounded at the base, glabrous on upper surface or with scattered small hairs, paler and densely finely hairy beneath, gland-dotted or not, entire or occasionally deeply toothed toward the apex, nerves sunken above and raised beneath
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, few to many-flowered, of ± sturdy short simple dichasia 2–4 cm long, orange-tawny tomentose; bracteoles 0.5–1.2 cm long, narrowly lanceolate
    Calyx
    Calyx obconical, 5-lobed, ferruginous pubescent outside, gland-dotted, accrescent in fruit; tube 2–3 mm long; lobes (1)1.5–3 mm long, erect
    Corolla
    Corolla creamy-white, c. 16 mm long, ferruginous pubescent outside, gland-dotted; tube to c. 7 mm long, curved; lobes mauve, at acute angle to tube, middle lower lobe 5–7 × 7–8 mm the others smaller
    Stamens
    Stamens exserted from tube; filaments with glandular hairs
    Ovary
    Ovary narrowly ovoid, not gland-dotted, lanate towards apex; apex long-acuminate; style c. 10 mm long
    Fruits
    Drupe c. 3 × 2.5 cm, spherical-ellipsoid, rounded or sharp-tipped at the apex, not enclosed in the enlarged calyx, purplish-black at maturity; fruiting calyx saucer-shaped, pubescent, not gland-dotted.
    Ecology
    Riverine vegetation, semi-evergreen forest, mixed deciduous woodlands, mutemwa thickets on Kalahari Sand and coastal forest, in sandy soils and coastal dunes; sea level to 610 m.
    Note
    Some specimens with thin, deeply dentate leaves and long calyx teeth belong here, including: the type of V. oxycuspis var . mossambicensis ; the type of V. dryadum ; Torre & Correia 17352 (Mozambique, Angoche, (LISC)) and Wild 7572 (Mozambique MS: 16.vi.1966, (K; SRGH)).  Although differing in leaf shape they belong to V. ferruginea on floral and inflorescence characters. It has been observed by field botanists that tropical savanna species go through a burst of anomalous vegetative growth with the onset of the rains (pers. comm. David Harris).  Verdcourt, in F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 68 (1992), also refers to specimens of Vitex with such anomalous leaves considering them to be dimorphic juvenile growth. Such anomalous growth would appear to be a characteristic of Vitex species. Recorded from the Caprivi Strip by Palmer & Pitman, Trees of South. Africa 3 : 1951 (1972), as V. amboniensis , and by Verdcourt in F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae 67 (1992), but no material from there has been seen by this author.   V. ferruginea can be confused with V. mombassae mainly in their similar inflorescences and flowers: the peduncle in V. ferruginea is rather short (as it is in V. mombassae ), the bracteoles are also similar, the flowers of both are large with a prominent lower lip, and the stamens, style and stigma are clearly exserted.  However, the two species can be readily separated on petiolule length – absent or very small in V. mombassae , c. 1–2 cm long in V. ferruginea .  Other distinguishing features are leaflet shape (narrow to broadly lanceolate in V. ferruginea and elliptic to obovate in V. mombassae ) and leaflet number ((3)5 in V. ferruginea , 3(5) in V. mombassae ).
    Distribution
    Also in tropical Africa from Guinea-Bissau to S Nigeria, Dem. Rep. Congo and Angola, and from Somalia to South Africa. Caprivi Strip. Zambia

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Vitex ferruginea Schumach. & Thonn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 5, 2014 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [1062], Mozambique K000960924 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1999 Wakefield, T. [s.n.], Kenya K000249040 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1999 Kirk, Dr. [s.n.] K000249042 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1999 [Swynnerton [1054] K000249043 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1999 [Monteiro] [s.n.], Mozambique K000249041 Unknown type material
    Gossweiler, J. [662], Angola K001067052 Unknown type material
    Welwitsch [5654], Angola K001008453
    Welwitsch [5654], Angola K001008454
    Welwitsch, F.M.J. [5632], Angola K001067051 Unknown type material
    Foster, E.W. [34] K000241368 Unknown type material
    Foster, E.W. [34] K000241369 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1937 Holst, C. [2578], Tanzania Vitex amboniensis K000249033 isotype
    Drummond, R.B. [3422], Tanzania Vitex amboniensis 18108.000
    Myers, J.G. [11814], Sudan Vitex amboniensis 26319.000
    Welwitsch [5644], Angola Vitex welwitschii K000249101 Unknown type material

    First published in C.F.Schumacher, Beskr. Guin. Pl.: 288 (1827)

    Accepted by

    • Meerts, P. (2018). Synopsis of the genus Vites (Lamiaceae) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Plant Ecology and Evolution 151: 380-392.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 982 (2002).
    • Kew Bull. 56 : 193 (2001).
    • S. African J. Bot. 59 : 615 (1993).
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 66 (1992).
    • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa, ed. 2, 2 : 169 (1987).
    • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 807 (1977).
    • Kirkia 10 : 271 (1975).
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 300 (1972).
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2 : 447 (1963).
    • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 371 (1962).
    • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb. II]: 174 (1954).
    • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb. II]: 175 (1954).
    • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 642 (1949).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 66 (1928).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 68 (1928).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 70 (1928).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst.: 62 , Beibl. 141: 70 (1928).
    • Sim, For. Fl. Port. E. Africa: 94 (1909).
    • F.T.A. 5 : 324 (1900).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • GBIF (2008- continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0