1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Vitex L.
      1. Vitex madiensis Oliv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree, 1.2–7.5 m. tall, with rough bark, or pyrophytic herb to small shrub, 0.3–1.5 m. tall, forming patches 1 m. wide from a massive subterranean woody rootstock; stems chestnut or purplish, striate, shortly densely velvety pale ferruginous pubescent or quite woolly or sometimes finely pubescent, soon or tardily glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves fragrant if crushed, often in whorls of 3, 1–5(–6)-foliolate, often drying yellow-green, becoming subcoriaceous; leaflets round, elliptic or obovate to oblanceolate, 2–25 cm. long, 1.8–11.5 cm. wide, usually shortly acuminate at the apex, rounded, cordate or cuneate at the base, very coarsely shallowly crenate, ± glabrous above and rather shining save for venation with pubescence as on the stems, densely velvety beneath at first or slightly rough above with very short scattered almost imperceptible hairs and densely puberulous on the nerves beneath or leaves entirely glabrous; very closely reticulate beneath with rather coarse veinlets which thicken with maturity, smooth or sometimes very finely reticulate above when dry; young leaflets have a very different-looking finer or even quite unraised venation; petioles 5–15 cm. long; petiolules 0.1–3 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences scented, few–many-flowered, 3–7 cm. long, densely pale ferruginous pubescent often with quite long hairs or ± glabrous; bracts linear, 3–6 mm. long; peduncle 3.5–12.5 cm. long; pedicels 1–3(–4) mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx densely pubescent and glandular; tube 2–4 mm. long; teeth triangular, 1–2 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla pink or white with violet or blue lips, densely velvety outside or tube glabrescent; tube 4–6 mm. long; biggest lobes 2–3 mm. long, 1.5–5 mm. wide, shorter lobes 1–1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide.
    Ovary
    Ovary globose with few glands.
    Fruits
    Fruit, often white-spotted, oblong-ellipsoid, globose or obovoid, (0.8–)1.4–2.5 cm. long, 1–1.9 cm. wide, shiny, very woody; fruiting pedicels 2.5–3 mm. long; calycine cup 1–1.3 cm. wide, distinctly toothed, slightly hairy.
    [FWTA]

    Verbenaceae, H. Huber, F. N. Hepper & R. D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree with the young parts densely pubescent
    Flowers
    Flowers pilose, yellowish and blue-purple in long-peduncled cymes
    Ecology
    In savanna.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from Uganda.
    Habit
    Shrub or small tree 3–8 m tall, or a suffrutex 0.3–1.5 m tall with annual stems from a massive underground woody rootstock; bark fissured, dark red-brown; older stems brownish-red, yellow and grey; young stems shortly tomentose with reddish-brown buds Shrub or small tree 3–8 m tall, or a suffrutex 0.3–1.5 m tall with annual stems from a massive underground woody rootstock; bark fissured, dark red-brown; older stems brownish-red, yellow and grey; young stems shortly tomentose with reddish-brown buds.
    Leaves
    Leaves aromatic when crushed, often 3-whorled, (3)5(6)-foliolate, often drying yellow-green; petioles 7–16 cm long, grooved; median petiolules 0.7–2.3 cm long; leaflets 6–17 × 4–9 cm, median leaflet largest, elliptic, narrow to broadly-obovate or oblanceolate, rounded or shortly acuminate at the apex, rounded, cordate or cuneate at the base, ± coriaceous, usually entire or sometimes coarsely shallowly crenate in upper half, often undulate, ± scabridulous or glabrous rather shining and not gland-dotted above, pubescent on the nerves beneath, conspicuously raised reticulate beneath Leaves aromatic when crushed, often 3-whorled, (3)5(6)-foliolate, often drying yellow-green; petioles 7–16 cm long, grooved; median petiolules 0.7–2.3 cm long; leaflets 6–17 × 4–9 cm, median leaflet largest, elliptic, narrow to broadly-obovate or oblanceolate, rounded or shortly acuminate at the apex, rounded, cordate or cuneate at the base, ± coriaceous, usually entire or sometimes coarsely shallowly crenate in upper half, often undulate, ± scabridulous or glabrous rather shining and not gland-dotted above, pubescent on the nerves beneath, conspicuously raised reticulate beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, slightly aromatic when crushed, of sturdy usually few-flowered compound dichasia, 5–19(30) cm long, tomentose with stiff patent cream-coloured hairs; bracteoles (0.2)0.6–1.2 cm long, linear Inflorescences axillary, slightly aromatic when crushed, of sturdy usually few-flowered compound dichasia, 5–19(30) cm long, tomentose with stiff patent cream-coloured hairs; bracteoles (0.2)0.6–1.2 cm long, linear.
    Calyx
    Calyx deep purplish-violet, obconical, 5-toothed, gland-dotted, pubescent to tomentose, accrescent in fruit; tube 2.5–3.5 mm long; teeth c. 0.7–1.5 mm long, erect; lobes 0.5–1.0 mm long, erect Calyx deep purplish-violet, obconical, 5-toothed, gland-dotted, pubescent to tomentose, accrescent in fruit; tube 2.5–3.5 mm long; teeth c. 0.7–1.5 mm long, erect; lobes 0.5–1.0 mm long, erect.
    Corolla
    Corolla 8–12 mm long, gland-dotted, pubescent to tomentose; tube greenish-cream or greenish-mauve, 4.5–6.5 mm long, curved; lobes at obtuse angle to tube, dull pale mauve to lilac.violet or brilliant purple sometimes creamy with mauve or greenish marks, middle lower lobe 4–3.2 × (4.5)4–3.6 mm Corolla 8–12 mm long, gland-dotted, pubescent to tomentose; tube greenish-cream or greenish-mauve, 4.5–6.5 mm long, curved; lobes at obtuse angle to tube, dull pale mauve to lilac-violet or brilliant purple sometimes creamy with mauve or greenish marks, middle lower lobe 4–3.2 × (4.5)4–3.6 mm.
    Stamens
    Stamens scarcely exserted from corolla tube; filaments with glandular hairs Stamens scarcely exserted from corolla tube; filaments with glandular hairs.
    Ovary
    Ovary gland-dotted and ± truncate at apex, glabrous; style 4–5 mm long
    Fruits
    Drupe 2 × 1.3–1.8 cm, ellipsoid, rounded at the apex, the base not enclosed by the enlarged calyx, purplish-black at maturity; fruiting calyx saucer-shaped, distinctly toothed, pubescent, not gland-dotted. Drupe 2 × 1.3–1.8 cm, ellipsoid, rounded at the apex, the base not enclosed by the enlarged calyx, purplish-black at maturity; fruiting calyx saucer-shaped, distinctly toothed, pubescent, not gland-dotted.
    Note
    The variation, in this taxon, in leaflet number and shape and probably texture has led to the recognition of two species in the past.  Plants in the north of its distribution range (subsp. madiensis ) have leaves 1–3-foliolate with leaflets broadly-obovate, more leathery and green-brown on drying; while plants in the south (subsp. milanjiensis ) have leaves 3–5-foliolate with leaflets narrowly-obovate, almost truncate apically and shortly acuminate at the apex, usually drying lemon-yellow.  Plants from Zambia and Malawi exhibit features intermediate between these extremes with leaflets 5 and broad or 3–4 and narrow-obovate.   V. madiensis subsp. milanjiensis can sometimes appear to be very similar to V. doniana , especially in leaflet shape, but leaflets in V. doniana are totally glabrous on the upper surface and the bracteoles are extremely reduced.  The reticulation in V. madiensis is darker than the leaflet blade, and not so in V. doniana .  The two species are very distinct in their flowers.
    Pistil
    Ovary gland-dotted and ± truncate at apex, glabrous; style 4–5 mm long.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Vitex madiensis Oliv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Speke, Cpt. [649] K000192783
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22333], Mali K000385992

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 29: 134 (1875)

    Accepted by

    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Moldenke in Phytologia 5: 451
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 504, 507, t. 115, 1-2.
    • Pieper in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 62, Beibl. 141 (as 142): 61
    • F.T.A. 5: 322
    • in Trans. Linn. Soc. 29: 35, t. 131 (1890)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 983 (2002).
    • Kew Bull. 56 : 196 (2001).
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 60 (1992).
    • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 809 (1977).
    • Kirkia 10 : 272 (1975).
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2 : 447 (1963).
    • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb. II]: 173 (1954).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 61 (1928).
    • F.T.A. 5 : 322 (1900).
    • Engler, Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C : 339 (1895).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Geerling, Guide de Terrain Lign. Sahél. et Soud.-Guin.: 331, t. 92/4 (1982).
    • Huber in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2: 447 (1963).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 200 (1956).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 445 (1952).
    • Aubrév., Fl. For. Soud.-Guin.: 504, 507, t. 115/1,2 (1950).
    • Pieper in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 62, Beibl. 141: 61 (1928).
    • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 5: 322 (1900).
    • Gürke in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 359 (1895).
    • Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc., Bot., 29: 134, t. 131 (1875).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0