1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Vitex L.
      1. Vitex payos (Lour.) Merr.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree 1.8–10.5 m. tall, stiffly branched and with a rounded crown; bark brown or grey-brown, deeply fissured; stems densely pale ferruginous woolly hairy becoming glabrous, some thick and corky with prominent large petiolar scars.
    Leaves
    Leaflets (3–)5-foliolate; leaflets elliptic to obovate, 3–19 cm. long, 1.5–9.5 cm. wide, broadly rounded or obtuse at the apex or acute or even very shortly acuminate in young apical leaves, rarely emarginate, cuneate at the base, very discolorous particularly when young, entire, ± roughly pubescent above, densely floccose velvety beneath, sessile but in large leaves the basal narrowing may simulate a winged petiolule; venation ± impressed above, even ± bullate, raised and reticulate beneath under the indumentum; petiole 6–15 cm. long, the apex woolly ferruginous.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes few–many-flowered, dense to rather lax, axillary, sometimes almost globose, 6–15 cm. long; axes all densely pubescent; peduncles 2.5–10 cm. long; pedicels ± 1 mm. long, that of central flower up to 2 mm.; bracts linear, 0.8–2 cm. long, 0.5–1 mm. wide, projecting in very young inflorescences.
    Calyx
    Calyx obconical, densely ferruginous pubescent; tube 2.5–3 mm. long; teeth triangular-ovate, 1–2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, very accrescent.
    Corolla
    Corolla fragrant, white, blue or mauve; tube 3–4 mm. long, hairy outside; main lip lavender, oblong, ovate or ± round, 3–5 × 4–5 mm., also with 4 white lobes 1.5 × 1.5 mm.
    Stamens
    Stamens not or scarcely exserted at least not beyond length of shortest corolla-lobes.
    Ovary
    Ovary hairy.
    Fruits
    Fruits black, oblong or ± subglobose, 2–2.5 cm. long, 1.4–2.4 cm. wide, ± shiny, glabrous, edible. Calycine cup dark, 1–2 cm. high, 1.5–2.5 cm. wide, broadly crenate; fruiting pedicel 2–5 mm. long.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from Tanzania.
    Leaves
    Leaves (3)5-foliolate; petiole 3–16 cm, terete; petiolules ± absent; leaflets 8–16 × (2)3–9 cm, median leaflet largest, elliptic to obovate, rounded or obtuse at the apex or acute to shortly acuminate, rarely emarginate, cuneate at the base, entire, discolorous especially when young, ± roughly pubescent above, densely floccose beneath, venation impressed above, raised and reticulate beneath under the indumentum Leaves (3)5-foliolate; petiole 3–16 cm, terete; petiolules ± absent; leaflets 8–16 × (2)3–9 cm, median leaflet largest, elliptic to obovate, rounded or obtuse at the apex or acute to shortly acuminate, rarely emarginate, cuneate at the base, entire, discolorous especially when young, ± roughly pubescent above, densely floccose beneath, venation impressed above, raised and reticulate beneath under the indumentum.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, of few–many-flowered, dense to somewhat lax compound dichasia, 3–18 cm long, orange-tawny tomentose or woolly when young; bracteoles 0.8–2.5 cm long,  linear Inflorescences axillary, of few–many-flowered, dense to somewhat lax compound dichasia, 3–18 cm long, orange-tawny tomentose or woolly when young; bracteoles 0.8–2.5 cm long, linear.
    Calyx
    Calyx obconical, 5-lobed, gland-dotted, lanate, strongly accrescent in fruit; tube 2.5–3 mm long; lobes 0.5–1 mm long, erect Calyx obconical, 5-lobed, gland-dotted, lanate, strongly accrescent in fruit; tube 2.5–3 mm long; lobes 0.5–1 mm long, erect.
    Corolla
    Corolla fragrant, 6–7 mm long, gland-dotted, lanate; tube white-blue, mauve or purple, 3–4 mm long, curved, hairy outside; lobes at an obtuse angle to the tube, middle lower lobe mauve or whitish, 2–3 × 2–3 mm, oblong, ovate or ± round, other lobes white Corolla fragrant, 6–7 mm long, gland-dotted, lanate; tube white-blue, mauve or purple, 3–4 mm long, curved, hairy outside; lobes at an obtuse angle to the tube, middle lower lobe mauve or whitish, 2–3 × 2–3 mm, oblong, ovate or ± round, other lobes white.
    Stamens
    Stamens enclosed within the corolla tube; filaments with glandular hairs Stamens enclosed within the corolla tube; filaments with glandular hairs.
    Ovary
    Ovary globose, apically rounded, not gland-dotted, lanate at apex; style c. 4 mm long
    Fruits
    Fruit an edible shiny glabrous drupe, black at maturity, c. 2–3 × 2 cm, ellipsoid to obovoid, rounded at apex, the lower half enclosed in the enlarged calyx; fruiting calyx cup-shaped, 1–2 cm high, 1.5–2.5 cm wide, broadly crenate, pubescent, not gland-dotted. Fruit an edible shiny glabrous drupe, black at maturity, c. 2–3 × 2 cm, ellipsoid to obovoid, rounded at apex, the lower half enclosed in the enlarged calyx; fruiting calyx cup-shaped, 1–2 cm high, 1.5–2.5 cm wide, broadly crenate, pubescent, not gland-dotted.
    Ecology
    Open woodland, wooded grassland and on rocky outcrops at medium to low altitudes; 50–1500 m.
    Note
    Characteristic features of this species are the sessile leaflets, the thick tawny woolly indumentum, especially on the young inflorescence, and the relatively small flowers.  For comments on its affinities, see discussion under V. mombassae.
    Distribution
    Botswana Mozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Zambia District code: MOZ N, MOZ W, MOZ C, MOZ S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, BOT N, BOT B, BOT N, BOT W, BOT C, BOT E, BOT S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ T, MOZ MS. Also in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Angola.
    Habit
    Shrub or small tree 4–10(13) m tall, with rounded crown; bark light brown to grey-brown, deeply vertically fissured; branches pale hairy becoming glabrous; young branches and twigs densely orange-tawny lanate. Shrub or small tree 4–10(13) m tall, with rounded crown; bark light brown to grey-brown, deeply vertically fissured; branches pale hairy becoming glabrous; young branches and twigs densely orange-tawny lanate
    Pistil
    Ovary globose, apically rounded, not gland-dotted, lanate at apex; style c. 4 mm long.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Vitex payos (Lour.) Merr. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2005 Loureiro [s.n.], China K000223712 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1999 Gibbs, L. [236] K000249037 Unknown type material
    Goetze, W. [548] K000241360 Unknown type material

    First published in Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n.s., 24: 334 (1935)

    Accepted by

    • Meerts, P. (2018). Synopsis of the genus Vites (Lamiaceae) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Plant Ecology and Evolution 151: 380-392.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 985, illust. 274 (2002).
    • Kew Bull. 56 : 200 (2001).
    • Kew Bull. 56 : 205 (2001).
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 63 (1992).
    • Taxon 38 : 155 (1989)
    • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa: 811 (1977).
    • Kirkia 10 : 272 (1975).
    • Mém. Inst. Invest. Agron. Moçambique 6 (1): 79–81 (1972).
    • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 372 (1962).
    • Phytologia 6 : 217 (1958).
    • Topham, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Nyasaland Prot.: 102 (1958).
    • Phytologia 6 : 45 (1957).
    • O.H. Coates Palgrave, Trees Central Africa: 430–3, plates (1956).
    • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb. II]: 172 (1954), as ‘ V. irvingensis ’.
    • Estud. Ensaios Doc. Junta Invest. Ci. Ultramar [in Mendonça, Contrib. Conhec. Fl. Moçamb. II]: 172 (1954).
    • Rhodesia Agric. J. 50 : 186, photos (1953).
    • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 643 (1949).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 60 (1928).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 65 (1928).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141: 66 (1928).
    • Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Africa 5 : 459 (1916).
    • Sim, For. Fl. Port. E. Africa: 94 (1909).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Verdc. in Taxon 38:155 (1989), nom. spec. conserv. propos. (see note).
    • Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 83 (1980).
    • Coates Palgrave, Trees S. Afr.: 811 (1977).
    • Palmer & Pitman, Trees S. Afr. 3: 1962 (1972).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 372 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 597 (1961).
    • Coates Palgrave, Trees Centr. Afr.: 430–3, plates (1957).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 644 (1949).
    • Merr. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 24: 334 (1935).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0