1. Family: Violaceae Batsch
    1. Genus: Viola L.
      1. Viola abyssinica Steud. ex Oliv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Nigeria to Ethiopia and Limpopo, Madagascar.

    [FWTA]

    Violaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Creeping or weakly erect herb
    Corolla
    Corolla very pale mauve to purple.
    [FZ]

    Violaceae, N. K. B. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Perennial herb.
    Stem
    Stems up to 60 cm. long, trailing or creeping and rooting at the nodes, often growing erect through surrounding vegetation, angular or ± winged, glabrous or ± hirsute.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate; lamina 0.9–3.2 x 0.7–2.8 cm., broadly ovate to ovate-orbicular, rounded to shortly acuminate at the apex, cordate at the base, shallowly crenate-dentate, membranous, ± hirsute below, glabrous or ± hirsute between the main veins above; stipules and lamina often with reddish resinous streaks or dots; petiole 4–32 mm. long, usually shorter than the lamina, ± quadrangular, channelled above, glabrous or rarely ± hirsute, slender; stipules foliaceous, ovate to linear-lanceolate, laciniate, glabrous or ± hirsute.
    Flowers
    Flowers single, axillary, pedicellate; pedicels 1–4 cm. long, slender, glabrous or ± hirsute, with two laciniate bracteoles in the upper part.
    Calyx
    Sepals linear to lanceolate, unequal, the lower pairs ± asymmetrical and curved upward, acute, entire, glabrous or ± hirsute, sometimes with reddish resinous streaks; appendages ± absent.
    Corolla
    Petals only slightly exceeding the sepals, oblong to obovate, rounded or obtuse, unequal, glabrous or hirsute along the midrib, mauvish-white to bluish-violet, paler towards the base, sometimes with reddish resinous dots; anterior petal 5–8 mm. long with a cylindric spur 2–3 mm. long, as long as the other petals or up to 1/3 shorter, with dark striations; lateral and upper petals paler, without dark striations.
    Anthers
    Anthers oblong-elliptic, shortly pubescent; connective-appendage orange, ± obtuse; tips of the spur-appendages hirsute.
    Pistil
    Ovary ± globose, glabrous; style about equal to the ovary, cbconic, ± truncate or unequally 2-lobed at the apex.
    Fruits
    Capsule 4–6 mm. long, pale yellow, 3-sided, acute, glabrous, coriaceous.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–2 mm. long, numerous per capsule, ellipsoid to globular.
    [FTEA]

    Violaceae, C. Grey-Wilson. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1986

    Habit
    Perennial herb; stems up to 60 cm. long, trailing or straggling through surrounding vegetation, often rooting at the nodes, glabrous or sparsely pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina broadly ovate, (9–)14–40 mm. long, (7–)12–33)mm. wide, generally longer than wide, the base cordate, the apex subobtuse to short acuminate, margin shallowly crenate-dentate, ± pubescent beneath, pubescent mainly between the lateral veins above; petiole 6–32 mm. long, pubescent or ± glabrous.
    Stipules
    Stipules foliaceous, ovate to lanceolate, 4–12 mm. long, laciniate, particularly in the lower half, pubescent or subglabrous.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, whitish, pale blue, purplish, mauve or violet-blue, the lip with darker striations; pedicels slender, (l–)2.8–7.2 cm. long, pubescent to glabrous, with a pair of linear-subulate bracteoles in the upper half, each 2–5 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Sepals subequal, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 5–7 mm. long, without basal appendages, generally hirsute along the midrib, sometimes with a ciliate margin.
    Corolla
    Petals unequal; upper 2 oblong to obovate, 7–9 mm. long, obtuse; lateral 2 ± oblanceolate, 7–9 mm. long, obtuse; lower petal (lip) elliptic, 5–7 mm. long, subobtuse, with a cylindric spur at the base, 2–4 mm. long, obtuse.
    Stamens
    Stamens ± one-third the length of the lateral petals, with orange or brownish connective appendages.
    Style
    Styles slightly exserted beyond the anthers.
    Fruits
    Capsule 6–7 mm. long, smooth, glabrous.
    Figures
    Fig. 7/1–3.
    Habitat
    Upland forest margins, upland grassland, bushland and bamboo thickets; 1200–2700(–3350)m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Viola abyssinica Steud. ex Oliv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [9180], Cameroon K000026792
    Jan 1, 1993 Thomas, D.W. [9173], Cameroon K000540118
    Jan 1, 1980 Fries, R.E. [386], Kenya K000231120 isotype
    Jan 1, 1960 Morton, J.K. [827], Cameroon K000105814
    Jan 1, 1949 Brenan, J.P.M. [9358], Cameroon K000105812
    Jan 1, 1949 Brenan, J.P.M. [9358], Cameroon K000105813
    Verdcourt, B. [1992], Kenya 4937.000
    Tweedie, E.M. [1275], Kenya 687.000
    Drummond, R.B. [1545], Tanzania 3174.000
    Tweedie [815], Kenya 9024.000
    Hepper, F.N. [2087], Cameroon K000105809
    Morton, J.K. [624], Cameroon K000105810
    Maitland, T.D. [1013], Cameroon K000105811
    Maitland, T.D. [1324], Cameroon K000105815
    Sanford, W.W. [5509], Cameroon K000105805
    Thomas, D.W. [2935], Cameroon K000105806
    Schimper [983], Ethiopia K000230895 isotype
    Schimper [983], Ethiopia K000230898 isotype
    Schimper [1461], Ethiopia K000230899
    Hedberg, O. [93103], Cameroon K000087442
    Johnson, W.P. [s.n.] K000230897
    Schimper, W. [609], Ethiopia K000230896
    Migeod, F. [251], Cameroon K000105808
    Harris, T. [175], Mozambique K000613250
    Patel, H. [7383], Mozambique K000613645
    Timberlake, J. [5187], Mozambique K000613915
    Timberlake, J. [5137], Mozambique K000613517
    Christenhusz, M.J.M., Kamau, P., Mbale, M. [6652], Kenya K000696657

    First published in Fl. Trop. Afr. 1: 105 (1868)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Grey-Wilson, C. (1986). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Violaceae: 1-38.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • R. E. Fries in Act. Hort. Berg. 8: 3 (1925).
    • F.T.A. 1: 105 (1868)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Grey-Wilson, C. (1986). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Violaceae: 1-38.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 2: 434, fig. 137/1 (1983).
    • Cribb, Mountain Fl. S. Tanz.: 59, t. 10A (1982).
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 100, fig. (p. 98) (1974).
    • Taton in Flore du Congo Belge, du Ruanda et du Burundi, Violaceae: 69 (1969).
    • N. Robson in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 258, t. 41 (1960).
    • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 107 (1954).
    • A.J. Jex-Blake, Some Wild Flowers of Kenya p. 10, fig. 10 (1948).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 631 (1948).
    • W. Becker in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 21: 364, t. 159, fig. 34 (1925).
    • Engl., Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr.: 308 (1892).
    • Oliv., Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 105 (1868).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0