1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Dracunculus Mill.
      1. Dracunculus vulgaris Schott

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Central Europe to W. & SW. Turkey, NE. Algeria.

    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    General Description
    Moderate to very robust, solitary to clump-fonning herb to 2 m. Tuber 5-12 x 3-6 cm, solitary, sometimes producing offsets from adventitious buds. Pseudostem 35-150 x 3-9 cm, pale to mid-grey-green with numerous jagged dark purple to almost black markings. LEAVES 10-21 x 18-45 cm, bright mid- to deep green, occasionally with conspicuous white streaks. INFLORESCENCE 25-135 cm in total length, smelling strongly of dung and carrion when newly opened; peduncle mostly enclosed by the pseudostem, visible portion 5-18 x 2-5 cm, concolorous mid-green; spathe tube 8-15 x 3-7 cm, oblong-cylindric to ellipsoid, convolute, exterior mid-green, slightly glaucous, rarely pale greenish white or dirty yellowish, interior deep purple, sometimes white to cream towards the opening; spathe limb 17-110 x 8-34 cm, ovate-lanceolate to oblong-triangular, acuminate, exterior mid- to dark green, margins and outer parts of limb usually stained deep purple, rarely pale greenish white or dirty yellowish, interior deep velvety purple, rarely greenish white or dirly yellowish, very rarely with conspicuous white, lilac and purple marbling; spadix 24-134 cm in total length; spadix appendix 20-128x 1.5-7 cm, stipitate, stout-cylindric to fusiform, larger appendices often strongly flattened laterally, deep glossy purple, rarely lilac, stipe deep purple, rarely white. Flowers; pistillate flowers arranged in an oblong-fusiform zone 2-4 x 1.5-3 cm, ovary oblong 2-3.4 x 1.5 -2mm, cream to yellow green, stylar region purple, stigma 0.5-0.75 x 0.3-0.5 mm, subcapitate, papillate, cream; interstice 1-5 mm long, cream; pistillodes present or absent, 1.5-3 x 0.5-1 mm, peg-like, cream; staminate flowers arranged in an oblong to onblong-fusiform zone 2-5 x 1.5-3, anthers 1.5-2 x 2-2.5, dark yellow, thecae stained mid-purple apically. INFRUCTESCENCE 4-12 x 3-5 cm, comprised of c. 60-80 berries, sometimes partially to completely encased in the dry spathe tube remnants; berries obovoid, 3-5 x 4-7 mm, orange-red when ripe. Seed compressed globose, 3-4 mm diameter., pale brown. Chromosome count 2n = 28
    Diagnostic
    Although the inflorescence of D. canariensis is superficially similar to that D. vulgaris it appears that D. canariensis has evolved in association with a difierent pollinator. The pale spathe limb, yellow spadix appendix and semen-like odour attract small flies, wasps and small bees (Boyce, pers. obs.) The spathe tube gapes at the front and allows insects direct access to the flowers whereas in D. vulgaris the potential pollinators (large flies, Staphylinid and Scarabidinid beetles) enter the spathe tube and gain access to the flowers by descending the spadix appendix.
    Distribution
    Distribution. Balkans, Aegean Islands, SW Turkey. Collections from Italy are possibly introduced; material from further west and from North Africa almost certainly represents introductions.
    Habitat
    Ecology. Maquis, garrigue, undisturbed olive groves, waste land.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Corse, East Aegean Is., Greece, Italy, Kriti, Sardegna, Sicilia, Turkey, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    France, Great Britain, Portugal

    Dracunculus vulgaris Schott appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 11, 1964 Redhead, E.M. K000499438
    Jun 11, 1964 Redhead, E.M. K000499437
    25760.000
    54019.000
    Turkey 54137.000
    Ingoldby, C.M. [586], Turkey K000480402
    Price, W.R. [1092], Turkey K000480405
    Boyce, P. [19], Greece 49822.000
    Boyce, P. [19], Greece 51381.000
    Brummit, R.K. [s.n.] 76579.000
    Stainton, J.D.A. [7504], Greece K000480377
    Stainton, J.D.A. [7504], Greece K000480378
    Heldreich [s.n.], Greece K000480399
    Ascherson, P. [813], Turkey K000480406
    Lieber [s.n.], Kriti K000480386
    Bornmüller, J. [10030], Turkey K000480403
    Bornmüller, J. [10030], Turkey K000480404
    Atchley, S.C. [1393], Greece K000480387
    Atchley, S.C. [642], Greece K000480388
    Atchley, S.C. [642], Greece K000480389
    Atchley, S.C. [642], Greece K000480392
    Atchley, S.C. [s.n.], Greece K000480396
    Tedd, H.G. [1372], Greece K000480393
    Tedd, H.G. [1372], Greece K000480394
    Tedd, H.G. [1372], Greece K000480395
    Platt, J.W.O. [215], Greece K000480380
    s.coll. [s.n.], Greece K000480397
    s.coll. [s.n.], Greece K000480398
    s.coll. [s.n.], Greece K000480400
    Harris, G.W. [257], Greece K000480379
    Aug 27, 1986 Reverchon, E. [171], Greece Dracunculus creticus K000480382
    Aug 27, 1986 Reverchon, E. [171], Greece Dracunculus creticus K000480384
    Aug 27, 1986 Reverchon, E. [171], Greece Dracunculus creticus K000480385

    First published in H.W.Schott & S.L.Endlicher, Melet. Bot.: 17 (1832)

    Accepted by

    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    CATE Araceae
    • Boyce, P.C. 1994. The genera Dracunculus and Helicodiceros (Araceae: Aroideae). Thaiszia. 4: 175-182.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/