1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Elymus L.
      1. Elymus repens (L.) Gould

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia, N. Africa.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; culms solitary, or caespitose. Rhizomes elongated. Basal innovations extravaginal. Culms erect; 30-120 cm long; 1-2 mm diam.; 3-5 -noded. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface, or pilose. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.3-1 mm long; erose; truncate. Leaf-blades 6-30 cm long; 3-10 mm wide; stiff to firm. Leaf-blade surface ungrooved; smooth, or scaberulous; glabrous to pilose. Leaf-blade apex acuminate; hardened.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; erect; bilateral; 5-20 cm long. Rhachis flattened; pubescent on surface (sparsely); scabrous on margins. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-8 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 10-20 mm long; 3-6 mm wide; falling entire. Spikelet callus glabrous; base truncate. Rhachilla internodes eventually visible between lemmas.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-8 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic to oblong; laterally compressed; 10-20 mm long; 3-6 mm wide; falling entire. Spikelet callus glabrous; base truncate. Rhachilla internodes eventually visible between lemmas.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 7-12 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels; 3-7 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins ribbed. Lower glume surface scabrous. Lower glume apex acute; muticous to mucronate. Upper glume lanceolate; 7-12 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels; 3-7 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume surface scabrous. Upper glume apex acute; muticous to mucronate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate to oblong; 8-13 mm long; coriaceous; keeled; keeled above; 5 -veined. Lemma midvein scaberulous. Lemma apex acute; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 0-10 mm long overall; limb scabrous. Palea lanceolate; 0.8 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels ciliolate. Palea apex truncate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; elliptic; membranous. Anthers 3; 4 mm long. Stigmas 2; protandrous; laterally exserted. Ovary pubescent on apex.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; isodiametric; estipitate; without sulcus; 5 mm long; smooth; apex unappendaged. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 0.9 length of caryopsis. Endosperm farinose.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, and south. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: northwestern. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Brazil and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Triticeae. CEH.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, Chita, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Magadan, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alaska, Alberta, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Azores, British Columbia, California, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile South, Colorado, Connecticut, Crozet Is., Delaware, District of Columbia, Falkland Is., Greenland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Japan, Kansas, Kentucky, Kerguelen, Labrador, Madeira, Maine, Manitoba, Marion-Prince Edward, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Australia, South Dakota, South Georgia, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon, Yukon

    Elymus repens (L.) Gould appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 5, 2014 Drummond, T. [78], Canada K001057652 lectotype
    Reverchon, E. [s.n.], France K000674875
    Reverchon, E. [s.n.], France K000674876
    Richardson, J. [19] K001065432 holotype
    Richardson, J. [31] K001065434 holotype
    Richardson, J. [s.n.], Canada K001065435
    Callier, A. [287] K000674910
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 259], United Kingdom K000914549
    Jensen, K.B. [377], Turkey K000433638 isotype
    Fries, E. [s.n.] K000674869
    Janka, V. von [s.n.] K000674877
    Rae, J. [s.n.] K001065430
    Rae, J. [359], Canada K001065436
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000674913
    Schur, P. J. H. [4361] K000674878
    Nielsen, P. [s.n.] K000674973
    Pullen, W. J. S. [178] K001065433
    McClure, Capt. [360], Nova Scotia K001065431
    Day, C.D. [750], Turkey Agropyron repens K000341689

    First published in Madroño 9: 127 (1947)

    Accepted by

    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2013). New floristic records in the Balkans: 21 Phytologia Balcanica 19: 131-157.
    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F., Matevski, V. & Kit Tan (2012). New floristic records in the Balkans: 18 Phytologia Balcanica 18: 69-92.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
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    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0